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Content available remote The effect of important parameters on the natural gas vehicles driving range
One of the most important issues regarding Natural Gas Vehicles (NGVs) is the Driving Range, which is defined as capability of a NGV to travel a certain distance after each refueling. The Driving Range is a serious obstacle in the development and growth of NGVs. Thus the necessity of studying the effects of various parameters on the Driving Range could be realized. It is found that the on-board storage capacity and the natural gas heating value have the greatest effect on the Driving Range. The charged mass of NGV cylinders is varied due to the natural gas composition and the final in-cylinder values (temperature and pressure). Underfilling of NGV cylinders, during charging operations, is a result of the elevated temperature which occurs in the NGV storage cylinder, due to compression and other processes could be overcome by applying extensive over-pressurization of the cylinder during the fuelling operation. Here, the effects of the most important parameters on the Driving Range have been investigated. The parameters are natural gas composition, engine efficiency and final NGV on-board in-cylinder temperature and pressure. It is found that, the composition has big effects on the Driving Range. The results also show that as final in-cylinder pressure decreases (or temperature increases), the Driving Range will be increased.
A novel, simple and simultaneous synthesis-immobilization of nano ZnO on perlite (nZnO-P) as a photocatalyst for photocatalytic degradation of Acid orange 7 (AO7) in aqueous solution was investigated. The effect of operational parameters such as initial dye concentration, initial pH, flow rate, photocatalyst granule size, temperature and the kinetic of the removal of AO7 in terms of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model in a designed semi batch packed bed photoreactor connected to an on-line sampling UV-Vis spectrophotometer was studied. The results showed that AO7 removal efficiency increased with nZnO-P using the designed setup and the proposed photocatalyst was more efficient than TiO2 as a standard catalyst. Our results confirmed the pseudo-first-order kinetics model. The values of the adsorption equilibrium constant, KAO7, the kinetic rate constant of surface reaction, kc, and the activation energy (Ea) were found to be 0.57 (mg.l−1)−1, 0.41 mg.l−1.min−1 and 11.44 kJ/mol, respectively.
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