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EN
Meetings of saints with dog-headed people is an interesting theme present in the early Christian literature. The Eastern writings concerning St Andrew, St Barnabas and St Christopher show that the assistance of a dog-headed was necessary for Christianization of pagans. The way of portraying a dog-headed and the motif of the change of his wild nature into a human one (leading to acquiring of human virtues) seem to be common for all these text and appear in some further ones also (ex. Life of St. Mercurius in Copto-Arabic Synnaxarium). Another interesting issue is a Gnostic ruler of an astral sphere – archon Erathaoth, portrayed as dog-headed by Origen in Contra Celsum. This figure could have been influenced by an astrological tradition. There may have been various reasons for using this theme in the ancient texts. First, Christian authors were discussing the possibility of conversion of pagans, who were very different from tribes known to Romans for a long period of time. The arguments for this interpretation can be found in Augustine’s De Civitate Dei and Ratramnus’s Epistula de cynocephalis, which both contain a discussion on the alleged human origin of dog-headed creatures and hence conclude that they could be baptised. The other option is the influence of the Egyptian culture and religion. The authors wanted to compromise it by describing a dog-headed creature (similar to Anubis) as a faithful follower of Christ. The same measures were used by Hieronymus in Vita Pauli with respect to centaurs and satyrs.
EN
The article is devoted to identification of the mysterious Mestris where St. Adalbert during his last journey from Saxony to Poland (at the turn of 996 and 997) supposedly founded a monastery. The story is told by the early 11th century Passion of St. Adalbert. In older literature the monastery was localized in Poland (usually in Miedzyrzecz, sometimes, but based on very poor arguments, also in Trzemeszno or Leczyca). For over half a century, however, it has been unanimously accepted that Mestris is identical to the Hungarian abbey of Mons Ferreus (Pécsvárad). That hypothesis is difficult to accept, so a Polish localization must be reconsidered. Mestris is most probably Miedzyrzecz in Western Great Poland.The existence of an abbey there is confirmed by the chronicle of Thietmar of Merseburg under the year 1005. If such identification of Mestris is accepted, it is necessary to undertake once again the search for the hermitage of the Five Brethren Martyrs (so far usually localized in Miedzyrzecz) and to reconsider the views about the journey of St. Adalbert to Poland and across Poland.
EN
The aim of my article is to analyse the rhetorical features in the Life of Symeon the Fool, written in the 640s by Leontius, the bishop of Neapolis of Cyprus, or to be more precise, in the second part of it, which is devoted to the conduct of Symeon in the Syrian town of Emesa. The article gives special attention to all elements characteristic of the late antique rhetorical education, namely the progymnasmata - school exercises that trained the student's style of writing, also used by the hagiographers. At a closer look one can find interesting examples of diegema, which add up to a carefully thoughtout sequence of episodes. I argue that it is not as haphazard as has been hitherto accepted.
EN
The aim of the article is to present and analyse examples (exempla) in Bl. Boleslawa Lament's Supplement to her rule and constitutions of the Congregation of the Missionary Sisters of the Holy Family. The genre under discussion was particularly popular in the Middle Ages, however it is still used in sermons and didactic literature. The examples are taken mainly from the lives of the saints particularly associated with the spirituality of the Congregation and are inserted in the main text to illustrate the virtues to be practised by the sisters.
EN
This paper analyses an early Christian martyrological text, the Passio Sancti Felicis Episcopi, with special regard to its later versions differing in the localization of the bishopis martyrdom. In the first part of the paper, the manuscript tradition is introduced and accompanied by a translation into Italian. The text depicts the martyrdom of St. Felix who suffered death in 303 in North Africa during the persecution under Diocletian, and it served as a basis for later editors who followed their own aims with newly modified versions of this narrative. The core of the paper consists of the analysis of the 'Nachleben' of the original text in context of South Italian hagiography, and it focuses on differencies between the two reworkings of the North African passio originating from Campanian Nola (the version N) and Apulian Venosa (the version V). The alterations and conscious manipulations of the original text are explained in detail, pointing out different narrative strategies used in each of the versions. Initially, the North African passio was an account of the martyr bishop who steadily refuses to deny his faith, he does not give over the Christian books and becomes an example for other members of North African church; the local versions, then, establish the saint in the Apennine Peninsula which was probably due to the translation of his relics from Carthage to Italy; finally, the late reworkings of the text set St. Felix into the context of Medieval hagiography.
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EN
One of the most widespread representations of the warrior saint in popular Byzantine-Slavic religiosity is the dragon slayer, represented by Saints Theodor and George. This image undergoes continuous resemantization and contextual adaptation, captured in creative expressions containing persistent and innovative but identifiable elements. This study analyses dragon slayer tales in the hagiographic cycles of St Theodor and St George, which feature the preamble motif of the hero’s sleep. The objective was to examine the degree to which they gather the inherent narrative elements to the conventional motif and the contexts and sources in which they are shaped. It also analyses the testimony of the Christian epic, produced in popular tradition and rooted in orality.
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Content available remote HAGIOGRAFICKÉ MOTÍVY VO SFRAGISTIKE AKO HISTORICKÝ PRAMEŇ
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Konštantínove listy
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2013
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tom 6
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nr 6
102 – 109
EN
This article deals with the hagiographic motifs in sphragistics. The article highlights the need to distinguish between the sacred and hagiographic themes of the content of seals. In the text, the typology of the sacred motifs of seals is presented. The seals with the motives of saints are usually but not always closely related to the local patrocinium. The seal was created in a specific period and for a particular owner. The analysis of the hagiographic encrustation of the seal speaks not only of the objective factors, but also expresses the subjective circumstances of the wearer. The most important note of the author is that the seal is a significant historical source.
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Content available remote SV. KLIMENT OCHRIDSKÝ A JEHO PÔSOBENIE V MACEDÓNSKU
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EN
St. Clement of Ohrid received a rich cultural heritage from Sts. Cyril and Methodius. One of the most important aspects of this heritage was Clement’s strong conviction of to keep the unity among the Slavic nations despite their diversity. The Bible played a key role in this process as the source not only spiritual revival but also of national pride. In the life of St. Clement of Ohrid we distinguish specific aspects of literal creation that enriched Slavic language models. Those models became a basis for the formation of a literary language. Therefore, we can assume that Clement’s compositions and scripts have their own liturgical and literary significance. He created very impressive and original corpus of literary writings which were designed for newly baptized Christians in order for them to became familiar with the specifies and basis of Christians faith. In the majority of his hymnography and oratories St. Clement presented himself as a theologian and theorist who created and deeply developed selected topics of Christian theology and Soteriology. His written works had a spiritual character. In the 15th century there was a big interest in his work and several translations appeared. St. Clement significantly participated in the development of Slavic cult of the saints. In his works not only textual and stylistic elements are present. New moral and spiritual values are found there as well. He devoted himself to work on small literary compositions such as word of recognition, advice on life, church poetry, medieval novels, poems and translations. Within the Ohrid Literary School he was most likely involved in the information of the oldest preserved manuscripts written in the Glagolic alphabet. St. Clement was an author of many hagiographic works, oratories and hymnography books. On this basis, we can conclude, that St. Clement of Ohrid profoundly influenced his disciples and successors. Furthermore, his works played a key role in the formation and development of the Macedonian language.
EN
The beatification process of John Nepomuk Neumann started already in the late 19the century. Today however his popularity in the Czech lands is still very low. The article offers an analysis of hagiographic and other biographic texts of Czech provenience. Firstly, of the texts about history of Czech settlement in the USA. Secondly, of the Czech hagiography, both the official and the published in samizdat or in exile only. Particular attention is paid to the attempt of Petr Piťha to create an “intellectual hagiography”. The apparent lack of individual and original traces in all the portraits of J. N. Neumann is a consequence of the hidden agenda of the Church policy in the late 19th century. Neumann was intended to be beatified as a model representative of the “Restoration”, anti-modern Catholicism of the 19th century, in the implicit polemics against the movement of “Americanism”, the American form of Catholic Modernism. However, Neumann appears to be popular in a different context: As a local saint patron in the region of his origins, while his double, Czech and German identity is emphasized.
EN
The main aim of this essay is to answer the question, which is discussed in historical literature, of who is the author of the double-legend about the earliest Czech saints, St. Vaclav and Ludmila. There is very large number of learned studies about this question. But most authors were not interested in the personality of the writer, his family origins, social status etc., but rather in questions concerning the date of his writing/works. This legend was mainly dated to the 10th or 12th century, in extreme cases to the 14th century even (legend dating is still a matter for discussion). The author of this paper supports an origin of the legend from the 10th century contrary to general belief. Moreover, we do not speculate solely about the legend, but about its writer. It is common known that he was called Christianus and he was identified with Duke Boleslav I's oldest son, Strachkvas, a benedictine monk from monastery of St. Emmeram in Regensburg. This follows the description of Czech chronicler, Kosmas of Prague (11th/12th century). This hypothesis is not verifiable in each detail, but it is the most sophisticated and is the basis of this article. On the fringe of learned literature stands an opinion, which links Christianus/Strachkvas with the Czech monastery in Brevnov. So the purpose was to test this thesis. After research into the different spectra of contemporary sources we have to state that the thesis about Christianus' origin from Brevnov is false. There is no reason to declare it. No contemporary source alludes to Christianus as a monk of Brevnov, only as a monk from Regensburg. Identification with monastery in Brevnov was only an idea of scholars who wanted to find a concrete author of a famous controversial double-legend and from this view, Brevnov was only one acceptable possibility. But it is only speculation and we must refute it. Following this minimum of historical sources, which we have, we can faithfully argue only: Christianus was a literate man, a cleric, a Benedictine monk, maybe an episcopal candidate, writer, and in all probability a member of the Premyslid dynasty. Anything else is merely specualative.
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