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Purpose: Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PG) in addition to collagen are the main components of extracellular matrix (ECM). They play an important role in intercellular communication and interactions between cells and ECM. The biological changes in ECM that occur during aging are induced by decrease in GAG biosynthesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of selected flavonoids isolated from Cirsium palustre (L.) Scop. on GAG content in human skin fibroblasts. Materials and methods: Human skin fibroblasts were treated with eriodictyol 7-O-glucoside (C1), 6-hydroxyluteolin 7-O-glucoside (C2), scutellarein 7-O-glucoside (C3) and pedalitin (C4) at 1, 20 and 40 μM for 24 h. Concentration of GAGs in the medium was assayed using method based on their ability to bind the cationic dye 1,9- dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB). Results: C1, C2 and C4 at concentration of 20 and 40 µM significantly increased content of sulphated GAGs in the medium. In contrast, treatment of cells with compound C3 did not have a statistically significant impact on GAG level. Ascorbic acid used as a positive control at 50 µM showed no effect on GAG concentration and increased their content at 100 µM but to a much lower extent than flavonoids. Conclusion: Flavonoids C1, C2 and C4 showed greater than ascorbic acid stimulatory impact on GAGs in healthy human skin fibroblasts, demonstrating their therapeutic potential in the aging.
Content available remote Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 expression in fibroblasts of Down syndrome subjects
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal disorder. It is featured by intellectual disability and is caused by trisomy 21. People with DS can develop some traits of Alzheimer disease at an earlier age than subjects without trisomy 21. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death process under both normal physiological and pathological conditions. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 is a mediator of programmed-necrotic cell death and appears to be also involved in the apoptosis. The aim of the present work was to detect the intracellular distribution of PARP-1 protein using immunofluorescence techniques and the expression of PARP-1 mRNA in culture of fibroblasts of DS subjects. The analysis of the intracellular distribution of PARP-1 show a signal at the nuclear level in about 75 % of the cells of DS subjects with a slight uniformly fluorescent cytoplasm. In contrast, in about 65% of the analyzed fibroblasts of the normal subjects only a slight fluorescent was found. These observations have been confirmed by PARP-1 gene mRNA expression evaluation. The data obtained from this study strengthen the hypothesis that the over-expression of PARP-1 gene could have a role in the activation of the apoptotic pathways acting in the neurodegenerative processes in DS.
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