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EN
This paper discusses the behavior of negative pronouns in a generative framework. It intends to account for their possible word order, as well as their interpretation and prosody (stressed vs. unstressed occurrence) in the various positions. The generative theory of language maintains that word order, semantic interpretation and prosody are all dependent on syntactic structure. What we have to determine, then, is the structural position of negative pronouns. - The main claims of this paper are as follows: se-pronouns are quantifiers left- or right-adjoined (Q-raised) to NegP, subjected to negative concord. In the preverbal part of the sentence, their word order automatically follows from their syntactic position (they are left-adjacent to the negative particle). When right-adjoined to NegP, they participate in optional reordering in he phonological component. They carry stress except when occurring within the scope of focus or negation in their surface position; in the latter case, they are destressed. They are universal or existential quantifiers (depending on their specificity feature). The particle sem 'neither' is ambiguous: it may represent the negative particle, or else it can be a 'minimalizing modifier', the counterpart of is 'also' in a negative context. Sem functions as a negative particle if no other negative particle occurs in the portion of the sentence that precedes it.
2
Content available remote THE 'NON-NEGATING' NEGATION IN SCALAR EXCLAMATIONS
80%
EN
In many languages there are sentences that contain a 'non-negating' negation i.e. negation that seemingly not really negates the sentence. In this paper we analyse scalar exclamations, such as 'How many people did you not deceive in your youth'! This exclamation can be uttered in the same context as the corresponding exclamation without negation. The speaker of this exclamation is amazed about the amount of people his addressee deceived. Despite of such behaviour, we assume the negation to be truth-functional and the sentence to denote a set of negated propositions, in accordance with the semantics of Karttunen (1977). We explain the 'non-negating' effect through a reversal of the inference associated with the sentence. Positive exclamation allows downward scalar inference and as such refers to the maximum among positive instances. Negated exclamation allows upward scalar inference and as such refers to the minimum among negative instances. We show that these two kinds of reference are two sides of the same coin. That's why one can express his amazement about some state of affairs both with positive and with negated exclamation. The analysis proceeds at the borderline of pragmatics and semantics.
EN
Systems of axioms for elementary logic we can find in textbooks are usually not very transparent; and the reader might well wonder how did precisely such a set of axioms come into being. In this paper we present a way of constituting one such non-transparent set of axioms, namely the one presented by E. Mendelson in his Introduction to Mathematical Logic, in a transparent way, with the aim of helping the reader to get an insight into the workings of the axioms.
EN
Representation and placing of negation together with a construction of clauses and order of the sentential components belong to main indicators of separation and idiomacy of the phraseology regarded in this paper. The author analyses Slovak phraseological fund and describes types of sayings involving negation and defines their typology.
Slavia Orientalis
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2008
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tom 57
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nr 1
107-115
EN
As shown in the material analysed in this paper, negation is a language mechanism that is used quite frequently in advertising slogans. Correct interpretation of advertising messages is based on the creative process of inference, functioning through reference to semantic standards. Negation has a variety of functions in advertising slogans. It may be the means of de-trivialising a message, i.e. a basic linguistic process converting systemic configurations (semantic standards) into non-systemic ones. Various negative senses are also indicated by means of inherent operators of negation, also called pragmatic or presupposition-triggering operators. Similar exponents of negative meanings are adjectives in the comparative and superlative degree, which are remarkably frequent in advertising slogans. The equally frequent negative functor 'nie' in conjunction with imperative forms becomes de-semanticised and may realise various speech acts: in slogans mainly the act of 'positive' advice (encouragement, suggestion/offer) or the act of warning.
EN
In a book written recently by Wladyslaw Strózewski Wittgenstein is presented as one of the main advocates of a theory that assigns an autonomous role to negation. A closer look at his writings shows, however, that the problem is not so simple, even if we bear in mind that in the 'Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus' Wittgenstein says unambiguously that existence and non-existence constitute reality on equal terms, and the non-existence of a state of affair is called a negative fact. This initial statement is further qualified in the 'Tractatus ...' when Wittgenstein says that a negative sentence is constructed indirectly, by transforming a positive one . A further complication arises when we turn to later Wittgenstein and to his turnabout connected with the discovery of the autonomy of grammar. This last position indicates forcefully that Wittgenstein saw negation as a particularity connected with autonomous rules of language rather than a separate problem concerning an alleged essence of negation.
EN
The paper analyses those existential sentences whose predication most frequently includes the negated form of the verb 'imati' ( to have ), and the role of the partial beneficiary implies an entity in the accusative with the preposition 'za' ( for ). When compared with the typical situation, where the existence of an entity also implies conditions for the general benefit because its nature allows for that possibility, the discussed examples represent the marked variant. In the majority of cases, negation provides a partial limitation for the beneficiary represented by the prepositional accusative, although the existence of the entity which could is not challenged ( e.g. Nema vode za mene./ There is no water for me ). In the smaller number of examples, markedness is based on the fact that the beneficiary with the affirmative verb has a partial, and not general character ( e.g. Ima vremena samo za mene. / There is time only for me ).
EN
This work will be about the cultural linguistics and the pragmatics. It will be the piece which brings over the denial and its pragmatic functions in the Spanish language. The author will present, exactly, the negative attitude, a notion related to the pragmatics of the language that every day we apply to what we say. However, in certain situations it is not necessary to use forms of negation to refuse. In spite of the fact that some answers are affirmative, clearly they can be understood in the obviously opposite way to what have been said since some phrases have the negative frame(meaning) based on the pragmatics. And this procedure is specifically based on the pragmatics. Having spoken we apply, especially, Grice's maxims, but also his implicatures. Thanks to the process of inference we can deduce what our speaker wants to say. In this work we will try to describe and to systematize it.
EN
The paper is a presentation and analysis of negation and negative states of affairs, with particular emphasis on the ontological aspects of negation and negative states of affairs. It consists of three parts and has an introductory character. In the first two parts, I presents the views of Ingarden and Stróżewski on negation and negative states of affairs. The third part is polemical and is an attempt to answer analytic philosophers' criticisms of phenomenology.
EN
The paper presents research into the effects of the use of negations in directives (commands, suggestions and requests). Described are three experiments that tested effects of variously formulated instructions: direct (pay attention to) and negated (don’t pay attention to) commands on directing of attention. Two indicators of attention direction were used: time needed to name the colors of stimulus words, and the level of recollection of these words after completion of the color naming task. In consecutive experiments, the numbers of key words, colors and experimental groups were changed. The strong conclusion drawn from the research is that a direct command influences all indicators of attention directing. However, a negated command increases the level of key word recollection, too. Both the automatic process that generates paradoxical effects of negated commands and the controlled process of reasoning may be responsible for the results of the memory task.
EN
The aim of the paper is to sketch some solutions that arose along the work on 'Logic of Strict Processes' (LSP). Three main topics are discussed: (a) negation based on implication constructed in intuitionistic fashion; (b) satisfiability in multimodal contexts and (c) a proposal of a first order semantics for Dynamic Logic of Strict Processes (DLSP). The system of DLSP differs from the original LSP in using the set of contexts, which are treated as ordered sets of formulas. The interpretation of a context is a transition system, which is constructed solely of simple processes. After the set of non-allowed processes is constructed, the negation of molecular formula can be understood as a set o processes that, when combined with processes associated with a non-negated formula, produce non-allowed processes. Satisfiablity in a transition system is defined by a special modal operators which are true only when the relation of metaimplication between them holds. In conclusion the author briefly reviews first order system based on DLSP and points to several open problems waiting for further investigation.
Kwartalnik Filozoficzny
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2012
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tom 40
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nr 2
167 - 186
EN
The author presents the critical part of Bretons’ philosophy, which concerns the theological roots of metaphysics and its ideological character. According to the author, during his reconstruction of the contemporary critique of metaphysics, the French philosopher focuses on notional schemas of metaphysical thought as well as on its socio-economical and psychoanalytic conditions. The conclusion of the analysis of the modern crisis is a statement about the redundancy of the notion of principle in (post)modern discourse. Nevertheless, Bretons’ last word about the principle is positive. In critical assaults of its contemporaries he reveals a mystical dimension of negation and indeterminate freedom, which is bound with skepticism concerning the attainment of truth and which he calls the new (postmodern) face of the principle.
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