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Contemporary social discourse utilizes scientific criteria to analyze events, texts and people’s behaviour from the point of view of their power and impact on historical transformations. Printed and audio-visual materialregarding John Paul II’s pilgrimage to the Middle East in the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000 were published and made public during his visit and shortly afterwards. In retrospect, this event allows for a well-balanced semiotic analysis focusing on the intentional selection of places visited by the Holy Father, his rhetoric used both in official and private speeches, the symbolism of his gestures and overall behaviour, especially in their religious and cultural context, as well as on the presence of signs and symbols in the whole conception of the pilgrimage project. This paper attempts to synthesize these elements which result from an earlier interdisciplinary analysis, taking into consideration the different perspectives be it historical, socio-religious (referring to three monotheist religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam), rhetorical and aesthetic. In this case, semiotics provides a framework to analyze and justify the contribution of the mentioned pilgrimage in a broad context of a redeeming Church in the early 21st century.
W artykule podjęto zagadnienie relacji między dialogiem kultur a dialogiem religii. Analiza pojęcia religii i pojęcia kultury pokazała, że ich treści są ze sobą ściśle powiązane. Nie ma religii bez kultury ani kultury bez religii. Dlatego pojawiający się czasem postulat zastąpienia dialogu międzyreligijnego dialogiem międzykulturowym jest bezpodstawny. Dialog kultur bez dialogu religii jest niemożliwy. Aby dialog mógł zaistnieć, muszą być spełnione odpowiednie warunki. Jednym z nich jest dążenie do prawdy. Prawda ma jednak charakter inkluzywny, a nie ekskluzywny. Dlatego w religii nie ma miejsca na przemoc w imię prawdy. Dla chrześcijan prawda ma charakter osobowy. Jest nią Jezus Chrystus – Zbawiciel „polifoniczny” (Klemens Aleksandryjski).
The article deals with the relationship between the dialogue of cultures and the dialogue of religions. The analysis of the concept of religion and culture shows that their contents are closely related to each other. There is no religion without culture nor culture without religion. Therefore, demand emerging sometimes to replace interreligious dialogue with intercultural dialogue is unfounded. A dialogue of cultures without a dialogue of religions is impossible. In order for a dialogue to take place, appropriate conditions must be met. One of them is the pursuit of truth. However, the truth is inclusive, not exclusive. Therefore, in religion there is no room for violence in the name of truth. For Christians, truth has a personal character. It is Jesus Christ, the “polyphonic” Saviour (Clement of Alexandria).
Pluralistic theology of religion is getting more and more popular in Poland. This kind of theology deals with such questions as: Are all religions equal? Does Christianity surpass all these religions? Is there any way to state clearly how one should relate to Jesus Christ today' word that strikes a balance between these two extremes? No set of questions concerns Christian theologians more today. No questions have more practical relevance in the religiously most pluralistic country in the world. No American theologian has kept these questions on the theological agenda over the past three decades with more consistency than Paul Knitter. And none is more expert in his or her knowledge of the field. He is the chief disseminator of these views. Paul F. Knitter is Paul Tillich Professor of Theology, World Religions and Culture at Union Theological Seminary in the City of New York He was formerly Emeritus Professor of Theology at Xavier University in Cincinnati, Ohio. He is a leading theologian of religious pluralism. He holds a licentiate in theology from the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome (1966) and a doctorate from the University of Marburg, Germany (1972). Knitter's journey into interreligious dialogue began in 1964 when he was a seminarian in Rome and experienced the Second Vatican Council firsthand, at a time when the Roman Catholic Church declared its new attitude towards other religions. Since publishing his acclaimed book, No Other Name? (1985), Knitter has been widely known for his religious pluralism. Along with his friend and colleague, the Protestant philosopher of religion John Hick, Knitter has come under harsh criticism from Cardinal Ratzinger (presently the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church). Knitter is against using absolutist language to depict the Saviour in interreligious dialogue, and writes about the relational understanding of the uniqueness of Jesus: the Saviour is to be understood in relation to other saviours. Although Jesus is truly the Word of God, Knitter states that he is not the only word: he is God's universal, decisive and indispensable manifestation of saving truth and grace. According to Knitter, the creed and other Christian dogmas concerning Jesus are to be interpreted symbolically as expressions of the church's experience of Christ. Here Knitter's insight is contrary to the traditional church's teaching on Jesus as far as it has an ontological foundation. Knitter's teaching about the relational uniqueness of Jesus is naturally unacceptable to bishops, because it alters the way the faith is proclaimed and it also deviates from what is central to Christianity.
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