The paper discusses the state-of-the-art of a chronology and a stratigraphy of the Late Glacial in the context of current analyses of dead-ice cores from Greenland and Antarctic, analyses of laminated lake and marine sediments, and dendrochronological and palaeobotanical research. The results obtained from Greenland ice cores directly influence archaeological studies on the Late Palaeolithic in Central European Lowlands. A complete sequence of climatic changes obtained from the analysis enables a more precise observation of cultural alteration in the context of dynamically changing climate conditions.
The matter of causes and mechanisms behind the radical cultural modification, which occurred at the turn of the Late Glacial and the Early Holocene and was characterized by the Mesolithic communities settlement throughout the North European Plain, constitutes the most vividly discussed issue connected with research on hunter-gatherer societies of that area. Fast and profound transformations of natural environment, taking place in that period all over the Plain, are the essential element of this debate. The article presents the latest results of the investigations into the changes of natural environment. It also argues basic conceptions concerning the disappearance of the Late Palaeolithic groups and the settlement of the Mesolithic communities in the north of Europe. In the authors' opinion, the process of cultural transformations that can be observed in the North European Plain between ca. 10000-9000 BC was an independent phenomenon lasting together with co-occurring environmental changes. Their synchronism was absolutely coincidental. Thus, the natural environment transformations can be treated only as a kind of catalyst of limited (and diversified) influence but not as decisive and causative factor.
In this article the new archaeological finds from Jarabina, a village situated about four kilometers to the northwest of Stará Ľubovňa, were discussed. It is very probable that the complex of sites located at the Litmanovská hill, which was discovered several years ago as a result of the field survey, gives next evidences of the Late Palaeolithic settlement in the region of Ľubovnianska Vrchovina as well as the whole Poprad basin in the territory of present Slovakia. Among 216 stone artifacts from Jarabina-Litmanovská the specimens made of local radiolarite, especially its red variety prevailed over the others and the products of siliceous limestone as well as few flint artifacts accompanied them. The products of every stage of the stone knapping can be observed: from a pre-core across the cores, flakes, crested blades, common blades and chips to the tools. In the assemblages of the Jarabina-Litmanovská 1 and 2, which created well-defined concentrations on the surface, the presence of blade technique is clearly noticeable. The inventory of the Jarabina-Litmanovská 3 was consisted of only one object: an atypical massive macroburin. Aside from the mentioned sites, at the Litmanovská hill 27 stone artifacts were gathered. They were mainly flakes made of raw material of low quality. The collection of not knapped small nodules of green radiolarite is also worth attention. Among all the finds some elements of late Pleistocene Świderian and Magdalenian cultures were distinguished, what results in the fact that the sites at the Litmanovská hill may correspond with the inventory from Stará Ľubovňa-Pod Štokom II.