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1
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EN
In this study, the K shell intensity ratios K_{β}/K_{α} have been experimentally determined for the elements Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co. Measurements have been carried out at 8.735 keV excitation energy by using secondary excitation method. K X-rays emitted by samples have been counted by a Si (Li) detector with 160 eV resolutions at 5.9 keV. The measured values were compared with the calculated theoretical values. The obtained values are in good agreement with the calculated values.
EN
The elemental sensitivity method for X-ray fluorescence analysis was applied to determine S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, and Rb in the whole blood of leukemia patients and healthy volunteers. Leukemia samples were classified according to type, growth, and age of participants. Student’s t-test results showed that, the mean concentration of the studied elements was significantly lower in leukemia patients than that in controls. Strong mutual correlations (r greather than 0.50) in the whole blood of leukemia patients were observed between S-Ca, K-Fe, K-Ca, Fe-Zn, K-Zn, K-Rb, Fe-Rb, Zn-Rb, S-Cl, S-K, Ca-Fe, Cl-Ca, and Ca-Rb; whereas, S-K, S-Ca, S-Cl, Cl-K, Cl-Ca, Fe-Zn, Zn-Rb, Fe-Rb, K-Fe, and Zn-Br exhibited strong relationships (r greather than 0.50) in the whole blood of controls, all were significant at p less than 0.05. Significant differences between grouping of studied elements in the control group and all classified leukemia groups, except younger age-group, were obtained using principal component analysis. The study indicated appreciably different patterns of element distribution and mutual relationships in the whole blood of leukemia patients in comparison with controls.
3
Content available Trace elements in scalp hair of leukaemia patients
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EN
The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in scalp hair of leukaemia patients and healthy volunteers, using the optimised XRF method. Leukaemia hair samples were classifi ed corresponding to type, growth and age of the participants. The results showed that the studied trace elements (TEs) in both of leukaemia and control groups were positively skewed. In comparison with the control group, lower Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb and higher of Ni medians were found in all studied leukaemia patients. The median rank obtained by Mann–Whitney U-test revealed insignifi cant differences between the leukaemia patients subgroups and the controls. An exact probability (α < 0.05) associated with the U-test showed signifi cant differences between medians in leukaemia patients and controls groups for Pb (lymphatic/control, acute/control), Cu (lymphatic/control, chronic/control), Ni (lymphatic/control, chronic/control) and Fe (chronic/control). Very strong positive and negative correlations (r > 0.70) in the scalp hair of control group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn, Pb/Fe-Pb, Cu/Ni-Zn/Ni, Cu/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Fe-Zn/Cu, Pb/Ni-Ni and Ni/Fe-Pb/Ni, whereas only very strong positive ratios in the scalp hair of leukaemia patients group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn and Pb/Fe-Pb, all correlations were signifi cant at p < 0.05. Other strong and signifi cant correlations were also observed in scalp hair of both groups. Signifi cant differences between grouping of studied TEs in all classifi ed leukaemia groups and controls were found using principal component analysis (PCA). The results of PCA confi rmed that the type and the growth of leukaemia factors were more important in element loading than the age factor.
EN
This paper investigates the behavior of paper strips containing iron-gall inks prepared with tannins from different sources, subjected to natural and thermally-induced aging. Results indicate that inks containing initial concentrations of ferrous sulphate ranging from 0.2 to 10.0 g are amenable to treatment with calcium phytate, and thata good correlation exists between the recovery of excess iron and the initial concentration. Infrared spectra showed an absorption band at 1,750 cm−1, typical of esther, solely in the samples prepared with a condensed tannin. The condensed nature of this tannin produced a different oxidation pattern, with iron removal inferior to those observed from inks produced with hydrolisable tannins. When tannic acid was used ferrous iron removals ranged from 0.050 to 1.800 g, decreasing to 0.5 g in the presence of copper; the same behavior was observed for the remaining hydrolisable tannins, with a lower recovery from the condensed tannin. The adopted natural aging procedure released a higher amount of ferrous iron compared to ASTM thermal aging. This was probably due to the marked effect of humidity, not considered in the thermal procedure. A series of archaeometric possibilities were used to help elucidate the degradation of cellulose strips impregnated with iron-gall inks. [...]
5
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PL
Opisano przebieg kursu Międzynarodowej Agencji Energii Atomowej z siedzibą w Wiedniu (MAEA), poświęconego zastosowaniom technik nuklearnych, a zwłaszcza fluorescencji rentgenowskiej, do identyfikacji obiektów o znaczeniu historycznym. Kurs zorganizowano na terenie Turcji. Obserwowano pracę ekipy archeologów oraz zapoznano się z najnowszymi wynikami ich poszukiwań. Na bieżąco analizowano znalezione obiekty za pomocą przenośnego spektrometru XRF (X-ray fluorescence).
EN
Described is the run of the course organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, dedicated to application of nuclear technologies and particularly to X-ray fluorescency (XRF) for identification of objects of historical significance. The course was organized in Turkey. Observed was the work of an archaeology team and the course participants became acquinted with the latest results of their search. The newfound objects were analysed on site with the help of a portable XRF spectrometer.
EN
The objective of the present investigation was to study the chemical composition of stem of Pongamia pinnata is a species of tree native to India growing in semi-arid region of Kachchh district, Gujarat, India. The stem of Pongamia pinnata were subjected to Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and were analyzed for different mineral composition. As the X-ray Fluorescence is one of the most reliable and accurate, as well as it is also a consistent and nondestructive method for analysis of major and trace elements using a single pressed pellet. During the study it was found that Potassium, Chloride, Calcium, Silicon, Sulfur, Aluminum, Phosphorus were noted in higher amounts, compared to that of other elements like Manganese, Iron, Nickel, Copper, Zink, Bromide, Rubidium, Strontium, Stannous, whereas the elements which were not detected in stem of Pongamia pinnata are Titanium, Cobalt, Hafnium and Tantalum.
EN
Livestock management systems are complex refl ections of economic practices. During the mid-fourth millennium BC in southeastern Poland distinct economic activities were revealed using portable x-ray fl uorescence (herein pXRF). Portable X-ray fl uorescence was used to measure elemental levels of strontium in the teeth of cattle, sheep and pig. Strontium is fi xed in dental enamel after a tooth has formed. By comparing strontium in teeth of different developmental ages it was possible to segregate individuals into local and non-local animals from three sites. The patterns observed reveal two levels of stock-herding in the Bronocice region. One pattern of low strontium diversity revealed the existence of unique localized management strategies for each species indicating they were managed separately. Another pattern of high strontium variability confi rmed the importation of non-local animals on an increasing scale over time revealing another aspect of Bronocice’s involvement in long distance trade.
EN
The elemental composition of terrigenous sediments is extremely important for interpreting the depositional conditions of sedimentary basins especially when traditional data are not available or insufficient. For the first time in the published literature, the elemental composition of the Lower Cretaceous Weald Basin (south-east England) is presented via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Spectral Gamma-ray (SGR) methods. The concentrations of Zr, Cr, Ni, Rb, and Sr in varying quantities suggest that the sediments may have been sourced from a stable craton while the enriched redox-sensitive elements such as Mo and Co confirm the presence of anoxic and reducing conditions at the sites of deposition. The spectral gamma-ray data show that the sandstone facies are more radioactive than the adjacent mudstone and shale and this trend is consistent with a freshwater origin. The higher quantity of thorium in relation to uranium indicates humid and hot palaeoclimatic conditions at the source areas that favoured intense weathering. The results of these analyses reinforce the importance of the geochemistry of sedimentary rocks as useful tools for understanding the depositional conditions of sedimentary basins.
EN
The results of X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and FTIR spectroscopy analyses of mineral composition indicated that the El-Lajjun oil shale is principally composed of calcite, quartz with minor amounts of kaolinite), gypsum, and apatite. The obtained oil shale ash products at 830 °C and 1030 °C are dominated by lime, quartz, anhydrite, portlandite, gehlenite, and amorphous phases. The TGA weight loss curves clearly indicate that it occurred in the temperature range from 310 to 650 °C. The decomposition of oil shale carbonates was detected above 750°C. The functional groups in the organic material of oil shale are dominated by the aliphatic hydrocarbons, the semi-ash of which had diverse structures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The most intensive of combustion occurred in the temperature range of 400–750 °C. In this temperature range, about 75 wt.% was accounted for the total mass loss.
EN
A simple, effective method is described, which permits accurate quantitative analysis of thin samples applying the X-ray fluorescence technique. The presented computer program (DECON) uses a weighted linear fitting of the set of computer generated reference spectra. The background function is included in the fitting process and approximated as a ninth-order polynomial. The precise calibration procedure, based on the fitting of high, ealisy used in several applications of the analysis of biomedical and environmental samples.
PL
Analizy rentgenowskie - dyfrakcja rentgenowska (XRD) i fluorescencja rentgenowska (XRF), są dobrze poznanymi metodami stosowanymi w kontroli procesów oraz kontroli jakości minerałów i rud. Kontrolą oraz badaniem właściwości chemicznych i fizycznych surowców, półproduktów i produktu gotowego, na każdym etapie procesu technologicznego, zajmuje się laboratorium ruchowe. W swej pracy wykorzystuje instrumentalne metody analityczne - głównie spektrometrię i dyfraktometrię rentgenowską.
EN
X-ray analysis - X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF), are very well known techniques for process control and quality control of minerals and ores. Analysis of chemical and physical properties of raw materials, semi-finished products and finished product on each stage of technological process are made in motor laboratory. In its work it uses instrumental analysis - mainly X-ray fluorescence and diffraction.
PL
W artykule dokonano analizy porównawczej osadów w układzie EGR silników z ZS zasilanych olejem napędowym Ekodiesel Ultra oraz paliwem B10 z udziałem biokomponentów. Analizy przeprowadzono w laboratorium z wykorzystaniem metod fluorescencji rentgenowskiej z dyspersją energii oraz metod spektroskopii w podczerwieni. Celem prowadzonych badań było określenie wpływu stosowania obu rodzajów paliw na proces tworzenia się osadów w strefie zaworu sterującego pracą układu EGR. Wnioskowanie ukierunkowano na ocenę zawartości wytrąconych składników nieutlenionych pochodzenia organicznego. Badany osad pochodził z układu EGR silników DURATORQ TDCi z udokumentowanym procesem eksploatacji, przeglądów technicznych i stosowanych rodzajów paliw.
EN
The article presents the issue of deposit formation in a EGR on diesel engine resulting from the use of diesel oil with biocomponents. Analysis was performed in a laboratory by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy methods. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of diesel oil with biocomponents used as a modern fuel to power diesel engines on the formation of deposits in the EGR. The inference focused on the analysis of the content of unoxidised organic ingredients. The subject of the study was the EGR of engine DURATORQ TDCi with a documented process of operating, servicing and the information about fuel types.
PL
Analiza wielopierwiastkowa, wykonywana techniką fluorescencji rentgenowskiej z dyspersją fali, jest – obok analiz wykonywanych technikami plazmy indukcyjnie sprzężonej (ICP) – podstawowym źródłem informacji o poziomie dozowania dodatków do olejów smarowych świeżych. Są to niezwykle trudne (głównie ze względu na wpływy międzypierwiastkowe – efekty matrycowe), ale jednocześnie szybkie metody badań, charakteryzujące się wysoką precyzją. Zastosowanie techniki WD XRF umożliwiło szybkie badanie składu pierwiastkowego olejów silnikowych świeżych, a w przyszłości może pozwolić na ocenę ich zużycia w trakcie eksploatacji oraz na badanie tworzących się osadów pogarszających pracę silnika. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki otrzymane podczas wdrożenia i walidacji metody badania środków smarowych świeżych, według ASTM D 6443. Norma ta dotyczy oznaczenia zawartości wapnia, chloru, miedzi, magnezu, fosforu, siarki i cynku w świeżych środkach smarowych oraz dodatkach z zastosowaniem rentgenowskiej spektrometrii fluorescencyjnej z dyspersją fali.
EN
Multielemental analysis, performed using wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique, apart from Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analyzes, is the primary source of information about the dosage of additives into unused lubricating oils. These test methods are extremely difficult, mainly due to the between-elements influences (matrix effects), but they are quick and very precise. The use of the WD XRF technique already allowed for fast determination of the elemental composition of unused engine oils. In the future, it will allow for the evaluation of their use during operation and also for the testing of formed sediments, that deteriorate engine performance. This paper presents the results obtained during the implementation and validation of a test method for unused lubricants, according to ASTM D 6443. This test method covers the determination of calcium, chlorine, copper, magnesium, phosphorus, sulphur, zinc and barium in unused lubricating oils by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.
PL
Niskokątowa analiza promieniowania X (GIXA: Grazing Incidence X-Ray Analysis) w badaniach niniejszej pracy jest kombinacją pomiarów reflektometrycznych (XRR: X-Ray Reflectivity) i kątowej zależności fluorescencji promieniowania X (AD-XRF: Angle-Dependent X-Ray Fluorescence). Metoda XRR jest powszechnie stosowaną techniką pomiarów grubości i szorstkości cienkich warstw. Pomiary XRR i AD-XRF wykonano na dyfraktometrze firmy Philips X'Pert MPD. W przypadku pomiarów AD-XRF został zastosowany chłodzony ciekłym azotem detektor Si(Li) firmy Canberra. Wykonano pomiary dla układów wielowarstwowych [Ni80Fe20/Au] ×15 i [Ni80Fe20/Au/Co/Au] ×10. Stwierdzono występowanie charakterystycznych maksimów braggowskich na krzywej XRR i maksimów interferencji fali stojącej krzywej AD-XRF odpowiadających grubościom periodów NiFe+Au dla pierwszego i NiFe+Au+Co+Au dla drugiego układu wielowarstwowego. Dla obu metod otrzymano dobrą zgodność wyników pomiaru grubości poszczególnych warstw składowych badanych układów.
EN
Grazing Incidence X-Ray Analysis (GIXA) is a non-destructive technique and has the potential to be powerful and versatile analytical method because it combines X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and angle-dependent X-ray fluorescence (AD-XRF). XRR is well-known method for the determination of thickness, surface and interface roughness of thin layers and multilayer systems. A complementary technique is AD-XRF, with which the compositional depth profile of the layered materials can be determined. The measurements of XRR and AD-XRF were performed on Philips X'Pert diffractometer. In the case of AD-XRF, the liquid-N2 cooled Si-Li Canberra detector was installed in order to measure the energy spectrum of X-ray fluorescence radiation from the multilayer sample. We applied these techniques for study the profiles of XRR and AD-XRF spectra of the periodic multilayer systems of [NiFe/Au] ×15 and [Ni80Fe20/ Au/Co/Au] × 10. Characteristic Bragg diffraction maxima of XRR curve and maxima of standing wave interferences in AD-XRF curves corresponding to the thickness of superlattice periods: Ni80Fe20+Au for the first and Ni80Fe20+Au +Co+Au for the second multilayer system. For both methods a good agreement of thickness measurements were obtained.
EN
Mercury concentrations in ash taken from electrostatic precipitations (ESPs) installed in bituminous coal and lignite power plants have been analyzed by the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method and leaching test supported by detailed coal and ash compositions’ analyses, surface scans and particles size distribution studies. The results showed that mercury was present on the surface of ash particles. Its concentration decreased upon increasing size of ash particles. Leaching tests showed that only small part of mercury was removed with water which suggests the fact that it occurred mostly in the form of insoluble compounds such as Hg, HgO, HgS and Hg2Cl2. There existed ash particles of the diameters from 50 to 60 μm, characterizing by the maximum capability to adsorb mercury and its compounds. The authors suggest that metals like copper and lead formed ash active centers that were preferably occupied by molecules containing atoms of mercury. It was highly possible to expect that content of these elements in ash would have a significant effect on sorption of mercury from combustion gases.
PL
Medyczne obrazowanie rentgenowskie jest oparte na pomiarze osłabienia wiązki promieniowania przechodzącej przez tkanki pacjenta. Osłabienie wiązki nie jest jednak jedynym efektem oddziaływania promieniowania w tkankach. Oprócz osłabienia obserwujemy rozproszenie (także wsteczne), tworzenie promieniowania charakterystycznego (wymuszona fluorescencja), a nawet zmianę fazy i załamanie fali elektromagnetycznej. Artykuł zawiera krótki przegląd literatury dotyczącej możliwych zastosowań tych zjawisk w obrazowaniu medycznym.
EN
X-ray medical imaging is based on measuring the attenuation of the radiation beam passing through the patient’s tissues. However, beam attenuation is not the only effect of radiation interaction in tissues. In addition to attenuation, we can also observe scattering (including backscattering), creation of characteristic radiation (X-ray fluoerescence), and even phasechange and refraction of the electromagnetic wave. The article contains a brief review of the literature on the possible applications of these phenomena in medical imaging.
EN
10 representative samples of limestone were collected from the Arimogija- Okeluse Axis of the Dahomey Basin and subjected to X-Ray Fluorescence analysis. Major and Trace elements were used to classify and predict the depositional environment of Arimogija-Okeluse limestone. The results for the major oxide composition revealed that CaO content ranges from 47.6-52.31% with a mean value of 50.06%. SiO2 concentration varies from 1.94-5.24% with an average of 3.36%. Fe2O3. MgO, and Al2O3 contents have mean values of 1.702%, 1.52%, and 1.09% respectively. Other oxides; Na2O, P2O5, K2O and TiO2 are low in concentration. The Loss on Ignition also varies from 38.9-41.8 with a mean value of 40.43% suggesting a high carbonate content for the limestone. Standard Ca/Mg and Mg/Ca ratios varies from 25.87-37.63 and 0.03-0.04 with a mean of 33.31and 0.031 respectively. The high strontium content reveals a saline environmental condition of formation for the limestone. The results obtained showed that the Arimogija-Okeluse limestone is a Magnesian limestone deposited in a shallow marine environment and suitable for cement production.
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