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EN
The aim of the paper is to assess the determinants of free time spent in forested areas by students of the Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska, Poland. In the paper, the authors have assessed the need to spend free time in forest, the role of the forest in the respondents’ lives, how much time they spend in this forest environment, and what forms of recreation they pursue here. The authors have also listed the benefits of spending free time in this environment, and what limitations young people have in organizing and using their free time in the forest. The above-mentioned aspects have been assessed analyzing the following factors: sex, place of residence, distance to the nearest forest. The empirical study was conducted in 2013, applying the diagnostic survey method and questionnaire form. The study was carried out on 400 students of the Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska, Poland. The university students mostly declared a will to spend their free time in forested areas, far away from the places they live in. The most popular forms of recreation were marches and strolls, and cycling. The respondents also displayed interest in other activities such as mushroom-picking and socializing in the forest. Spending time in the forest provides various benefits, as was listed by the youths surveyed, i.e. physical and mental recuperation of the body, the need for internal peace and rest, mood improvement, and the possibility of stress relief. While assessing the barriers to spending time in forested areas, the respondents pointed out fear of encountering wild animals and the possibility of being bitten by a tick. Quite an important barrier stated was the distance from the place of their residence to the nearest woods.
2
Content available remote The Turán Number of the Graph 2P5
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EN
We give the Turán number ex (n, 2P5) for all positive integers n, improving one of the results of Bushaw and Kettle [Turán numbers of multiple paths and equibipartite forests, Combininatorics, Probability and Computing, 20 (2011) 837-853]. In particular we prove that ex (n, 2P5) = 3n−5 for n ≥ 18.
EN
Earthworms play an important role in the soil quality, including forest soils. Their presence in zooedaphone, as well as their abundance and species diversity, indicate the state of the soil profile. The species diversity of the representatives of this group of macrofauna in a beech forest in the Bieszczady Mountains is recounted in this article. Earthworms were investigated in the soil of four sites selected near Ustrzyki Górne in Carpathian Dentario glandulosae – Fagetum beech woods within the Bieszczady National Park (sites in D. g. Fagetum festucetosum, – typicum, – lunarietosum and – allietosum), every month during the annual cycle during two periods: a/ in 1986–1987 and b/ in 2009–2010. It was done according to the Zicsi’s recommendations, using the Zajonc combinated method, on each site, six 25×25×20 cm samples were extracted. The soil was divided into two layers (0–10 cm and 10–20 cm) and the earthworms were selected manually from them. From deeper layers, they were driven out with a weak (0.4%) formalin solution. In the 1980s, thirteen earthworm species were found (total of 1805 specimens) in the soil of four sites investigated. In a decreasing order of numbers there were: Dendrobaena alpina alpina (Rosa 1984), Allolobophora cernosvitoviana (Zicsi 1967), Aporectodea rosea rosea (Sav.,1826), Aporectodea caliginosa (Sav., 1826), Lumbricus terrestris L., 1758, Octolasium lacteum (Orley,1881), Allolobophora carpathica (Cog., 1927), Fitzingeria platyura montana (Cer., 1932), Octodrilus transpadanus (Rosa, 1884), Dendrobaena octaedra (Sav., 1826), Eisenia lucens (Waga, 1857), Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffm., 1843), Dendrodrilus rubidus tenuis (Eisen, 1874). Twenty years later, in the years 2009-2010, eleven earthworm species were found in the soil of the same four sites investigated (total of 660 specimens). There was no occurrence of L. rubellus, and O. transpadanus. For all the cited species, the vertical distribution dynamics in an annual cycle was investigated as well as the preferred soil layer in terms of soil profile. The features of the afore-mentioned earthworm species and the soil levels they prefer allowed their affiliation with the ecological groups defined by Bouche to be considered or determined. The knowledge on the association of earthworms to ecomorphological groups in natural or a slightly changed ecosystem is becoming very useful, for example at the time of the reclamation of degraded soils with Lumbricidae as bioindicators.
PL
Podczas polsko-niemieckiego seminarium w Brodach w odsłanianie osi widokowych zdziczałego parku zaangażowało się ponad 350 osób. Efekty wykonanych prac są zachwycające. Miejsce to ma szansę stać się interesującym punktem na mapie turystycznej zachodniej Polski.
EN
The research described in this article was conducted in the Tatra National Park in Poland, which is considered as one of the most-visited national parks in Europe. The exceptional popularity of this place is responsible for intensification of morphogenetic processes, resulting in the development of numerous forms of erosion. This article presents the outcomes of the research whose purpose was to verify the usability of unmanned aerial vehicles to check the condition of hiking trails and forests in alpine areas. An octocopter equipped with a non-metric camera was used for measurements. The paper sketches the methodology of data acquisition in harsh conditions and demanding locations of hiking trails on steep Tatra slopes. The paper also describes stages that lead to elaboration of basic photogrammetric products relying on SfM (Structure from Motion) technique. Finally, it shows the applicability of the prepared products to the evaluation of erosion along hiking trails, and to the study of plant succession or tree stand condition in the area located next to hiking trails.
6
Content available Spatial 137Cs distribution in forest soil
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EN
This work presents the distribution of radioactive caesium in several types of forest soil originating from the Lesisko reserve (Opole Province, Poland). Vertical distribution of 137Cs isotope was determined in the profiles related to physicochemical properties of different types of soils and their location. Thickness of emerging genetic horizons, structure and morphology of soil profiles were determined. The highest 137Cs activities were found in Of and A horizons. At the same time, there was a sudden drop of 137Cs activity in mineral horizons of soil profiles. By analysis of caesium radioisotope content and its distribution in soil profiles significant correlations were observed between certain physicochemical properties (e.g. pH value, hydrolytic acidity, granulometric composition) of soils in selected forest habitats.
EN
The results of the study carried out in areas that differed in soil moisture in two years differing in the amount of precipitation provide evidence that drained peatlands on segde-moss peat managed as meadows enhance a higher stabilization of Collembola communities than the adjacent areas subjected to spontaneous forest succession: changes in numbers are small, biomass is higher than in the forest, and the similarity of species composition from year to year is higher than in the forest. The dominance structure, the same species being dominant, is almost identical. In the alder peat, the most suitable conditions for the development of Collembola communities are created in the area subjected to spontaneous forest succession after drainage, rather than in drained meadows. Collembola community in the forest was characterized by a higher abundance and biomass and a higher index of species diversity than in the meadow, and by a higher species similarity from year to year.
EN
Our study was carried out in fresh pine mixed forest, Biala Forest, near Warsaw (52°59’ N, 21°46’ E and 52°79’ N, 21°89’E, Eastern Poland). Three experimental plots, 1m2 size, were chosen at random and burnt in June. Material was collected: just after experimental fire (in June ), 30 , 60 and 90 days after fire (respectively: in July, August and September). On every sampling occasion 10 soil samples of an area of 10 cm2 and a depth of 5 cm were taken in each sampling plots: burnt plots, in border of burnt plots and in surroundings of burnt plots. We found that experimental fire influenced on collembolan densities (Kruskall-Wallis test, H=8.29, P=0.01). Just after experimental fire we fo¬und no collembolans in burnt plots. In a period of 90 days following the experimental fire densities of springtails of burnt and surroundings were similar. Euedaphic springtails were the dominating group in burnt plots and contrary to the border of burnt plots and surroundings, we noticed no epigeic springtails. Contribution of epigeic, hemiedaphic and euedaphic species in collembolan communities of investigated areas could point to different defence strategies of these invertebrates. Immature individuals of Collembola were the most numerous in burnt plots and at border of burnt plots and this phenomenon is probably crucial for reconstruction of collembolan communities after fire.
EN
There are ample facts that the whole world is facing an ecological crisis by reason of heavy deforestation. Thus, this study assesses the influence of deforestation on some selected villages in Borgu Local Government Area, Niger State. Data were collected from members of the community using a set of structured questionnaire. This was then analyzed using descriptive statistics (percentages and frequency count). Findings reveal that the major occupation is trading (33.3%), followed by farming (30%). The causes of deforestation in the study area include: fuelwood removal (31.7%), urbanization (25.0), logging (20.0%), subsistence farming (15.8%), population growth and overpopulation (3.3%), commercial farming (2.5%) and inequitable distribution of wealth and power (1.7%). Global warming (31.7%) was the major effect generated by deforestation in the study area, followed by soil erosion (24.2%). Encouragement of better agroforestry practices (30.8%) was seen as the major strategy for reducing deforestation by the respondents. Other best practices include: afforestation (27.5%), public enlightenment (13.3%), enforcement of forest land and policy (12.5%), forest education (8.3%), forest conservation and preservation (7.5%).
EN
The main purpose of this work was to assess changes to the forest areas in Promno Landscape Park which occurred in 1830–2013. The assessment of these changes was based on an analysis of cartographic material from 1830, 1890, 1940 and 2013. The article presents the natural and socio-economic conditions in the research area. Analyses of dominant habitats and stands have also been presented together with cartographic material and a detailed analysis and evaluation of the changes over nearly 180 years. Based on the strategic documents and research results, a forecast has also been provided of the changes to be expected in the next dozen or so years. An analysis of changes to the forest areas in Promno Landscape Park has shown that the largest decrease in forest cover occurred in the second half of the 19th century in connection with clear-cut clearings. In 1890, the forest area decreased by 268 ha against 1830. Slight changes took place in the late 19th and the early 20th centuries. In that period, slow afforestation followed logging and therefore the forest area increased from 1,592.3 hectares in 1890 to 1,679 hectares in 1940. Undoubtedly, the largest increase occurred after 1940, after the Second World War when land of poor agricultural value was afforested. The area of forests grew from 1,679 ha in 1940 to 2,545.29 ha in 2013 marking an increase in forest cover from less than 50% to the existing 76%.
12
Content available remote Note On The Game Colouring Number Of Powers Of Graphs
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EN
We generalize the methods of Esperet and Zhu [6] providing an upper bound for the game colouring number of squares of graphs to obtain upper bounds for the game colouring number of m-th powers of graphs, m ≥ 3, which rely on the maximum degree and the game colouring number of the underlying graph. Furthermore, we improve these bounds in case the underlying graph is a forest.
EN
The international community affirms the critical role of forests in climate change mitigation, which includes reducing emissions from degradation and deforestation, carbon stock conservation, sustainable forest management, and increasing carbon stocks in developing countries. It relates to land use and land cover changes. This study aims to review land use and land cover changes (LULC) in two decades, namely 2000-2010 and 2010-2020, and the impact on carbon stocks. Landsat satellite imagery in 2000, 2010, and 2020 are classified into six categories: built-up area, cropland, forest, water body, bareland, and grassland. This classification uses supervised classification. The accuracy kappa coefficient values obtained for the LULC 2000, LULC 2010, and LULC 2020 maps were 89.61%, 83.90%, and 87.10%, respectively. The most dominant systematic LULC change processes were forest degradation in 2000-2020; the transition of forest to cropland (349.20 ha), forest to bareland (171.19 ha), and forest to built-up area (661.68 ha). Loss of using the forest for other uses was followed by a decrease in carbon stock. There was a high decrease in carbon stock in the forest category (11,000 Mg C∙y-1). The results showed a significant change in land use and cover. The decline in the area occurred in the forest category, which decreased from year to year. Meanwhile, the built-up area increases every year. Carbon stocks also decrease from year to year, especially forests as the most significant carbon store, decreasing in the area.
EN
The purpose of the article is to indicate and assess the impact of the legal regulations specifying the rights and obligations of the owner of agricultural land with trees and forest land included in the farm in the context of the activity conducted on that farm and environmental protection. The issues in question are wide, therefore the article focuses primarily on the afforestation of agricultural lands. It presents the evolution of legal regulations and the rights and obligations of agricultural producers who have afforested, including the maintenance of forests. The paper refers also to the law on the protection of agricultural and forest lands. Additionally, the paper discusses the permission to remove trees from the farmland and selected regulations concerning the subject of trees in the farms in the civil code and tax laws. In the conclusions the author states that the legislator tries to support, on the one hand, the protection of the environment (e.g. enlarging the forest area, quantitative and qualitative protection of forest land) and, on the other hand, the activity of an agricultural producer in this area by means of financial instruments (financial means related to afforestation of agricultural land, tax exemptions, compensation for obligatory afforestation or shrub planting).
EN
This study aims to determine the relationships likely to exist between the edaphic variables and the abundance of oak species in the Edough forest of the commune of Seraidi (North East of Algeria), a humid bioclimatic stage where rainfall is abundant. In order to characterize the properties of the soils of the Edough forest (Seraidi) and to verify the usefulness of the fractionation of organic matter in a forest ecosystem, we have established a prospecting sampling plan based on a topographic background of the superposition of the different plant groups. In this context, the approach we adopted consisted on three main steps (i) a stratified sampling of the soil, (ii) the determination of the different strata of vegetation, (iii) describing the soil on which these plant formations settle and develop. Our results revealed that the soils of the Edough forest are acidic to very acidic and non-saline. It is also characterized by clayey texture that is not very permeable, with a high rate of organic matter, which controls the buffering capacity of the soil. The characterization of the soils allowed determining three types of plant formations and thus three types of soils where pedogenesis is under direct control of the supply of organic matter. The relationship between the soil and the vegetation in this forest is clearly close. It is mainly controlled by the supply of organic matter, which shows a significant dynamic and evolution. On the other hand, the climatic conditions and the type of plant formations have a capital role in the mineralization of the existing organic matter.
EN
We examined seasonal borne range size and habitat use by sexes of moose Alces dices (Linnaeus, 1758) near the southern edge of this species' geographic range. Home range size did not differ between males and females during any season. The distribution of forage partly explained seasonal habitat use by both sexes. However, sites occupied by males in summer (1 Juno - 15 September) and autumn (16 September - 31 December) were at higher elevations, had steeper slopes, and were farther from potential aquatic feeding sites than sites used by females. We suggest that habitat segregation during these seasons was a consequence of differential resource requirements, not active avoidance by either sex. During summer, females occupied lowland sites near forest cuts, presumably because these sites had abundant forage and dense understory cover that concealed their young from predators. Additionally, females utilized roadside salt licks more often than males during summer and autumn. Males occupied upland hardwood stands during summer in an apparent effort to avoid heat stress and maximize forage intake. Habitat characteristics of both sexes were similar during winter when resource needs were probably equivalent, and the quality and distribution of forage were more homogenous.
EN
The aim of this work was to determine the content of Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd in auto- and semihydrogenic soils of Bialowieza National Park and to find relationships between their occurrence and litho- and pedogenic features of these soils. Basing on geometric mean contents of the elements studied a quantitative series of their occurrence was established as follows: Mn (297) >Zn (29) >Cr (16) >Pb (12) >Ni (10) >Cu (8.0) >Cd (0.29) mg kg-1 d.w The distribution of the above trace elements in soil profiles is linked to the direction of progress of the soil forming processes and, to some extent, to the variability of soil texture (especially in not completely developed soils). In general, the mineral-organic (A) horizons were least abundant in Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd, followed by the illuvial (Eet) and bedrock (C) horizons of the soils studied. Statistical analysis shown a significant correlation between contents of Cr, Ni and Zn and clay and colloidal particle amounts as well as between the content of Pb and the amount of organic carbon
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