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This article is devoted to the problem of reforming Ukrainian legislation in accordance with the European principles of humanization and mitigation of criminal liability. Since the principle of supremacy of the law acts and is admitted in Ukraine, and the Constitution of Ukraine has supreme legal validity, laws and other normative legal acts have no retrospective effect, except those which mitigate or eliminate liability of a person accused of committing a crime. Amendments to the Criminal and Criminal Procedural Codes of Ukraine of 2008have proscribed that after a person has committed a сriminal act, and the Law on Criminal Liability was changed several times, the law eliminating the criminality of that act, mitigating criminal liability or improving a person’s position has a retrospective effect. In this regard, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine has to interpret some basic questions, such as: whether punishment in the form of life imprisonment can be applied to persons who have committed a criminal act for which until March, 29, 2000, the Criminal Code of Ukraine proscribed the possibility of the death penalty; and whether life imprisonment is a new kind of punishment or is a replacement of one kind of punishment with another one – in this case, the death penalty with life imprisonment. The author proves that the Criminal Code of Ukraine, with some modifications concerning mitigation of criminal liability, should be considered as a new criminal code. According to the legal position of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine, for persons who committed crimes, for which the possibility of the death penalty was proscribed until March 29, 2000, the punishment of the life imprisonment may be applied.
The article analyzes the matter of correlation between retribution and purposes of penal punishment due to penal legislation of Kazakhstan and Ukraine. The moot point of defining retribution as a purpose or a feature of punishment is discussed. A comparative description of the problem is presented on the basis of legislation of the republic of Kazakhstan and the Republic of Ukraine. Purposes of punishment are considered to belong to backbone characteristics that determine the structure and tendency of many a legal institutions, influence the application of many norms, e.g. imposition of punishment or release of sentence. Purposes of punishment are defined by the penal policy of the state – formation of certain purposes shows what result the state wishes to achieve by applying penal punishment for committed crimes.The matter of purposes is closely connected with the problem of effectiveness of penal punishment as well as penal law in general. Therefore, purposes of punishment were paid so much attention both in law theory and in legislative practice.
Content available remote Klement Alexandrijský o smyslu utrpení věřícího
In his Stromata (book IV, chapter 12) Clement of Alexandria touches briefly on the theme of the value of suffering, only to break off abruptly in the middle of a promising comment, noting that although much more needs to be said, this must be left to be continued later "at the appropriate time". The theme was never dealt with by Clement systematically, however. Based on individual ideas in Stromata, Paedagogus, Protrepticus, Quis dives salvetur and the surviving fragments of the Hypotyposes, the paper depicts Clement’s thoughts concerning suffering as a consequence of a Christian’s sin, about the suffering of an innocent person and spiritual struggle and about the cross and vicarious suffering. The statements contained in the post­-stromatic material (the so-called Stromata VIII, Excerpts from Theodotus and Eclogae propheticae), which is the collection of Clement’s preparatory notes and excerpts from various sources, are not considered in this article.
Content available Kilka słów o karze – ujęcie ogólne
Punishment, its purpose and essence is a research issue around which many controversies have arisen. Previous studies indicate that almost everything has been said about the punishment. However, it is important to point out that the future of punishment and penalization, and issues that continue to raise topics for discussion, are important areas. Penalty plays an important role in the social sphere and highlights important issues such as substance, prevention and punishment.
Kara, jej cel i istota to zagadnienie badawcze, wokół którego narosło wiele kontrowersji. Dotychczasowe badania wskazują, że o karze powiedziano już prawie wszystko. Jednak należy zaznaczyć, że ważnym obszarem jest przyszłość kary i karania oraz zagadnienia, które nadal stają się tematem do dyskusji. Kara odgrywa ważną rolę w obszarach społecznych i należy podkreślać ważne zagadnienia, jakimi są istota, profilaktyka oraz celowość kary.
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