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EN
The article concerns the history of emphyteusis as a legal institution and its modernday implications for land ownership in Poland. It describes the origins of emphyteusis and its different forms and functions fulfilled in property relations within the borders of modern Poland. It focuses on problems connected with emphyteusis rights established under expired or repealed acts and concludes with an analysis of their status pursuant to the civil law currently in force.
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Considerable attention is paid to issue of things at the present time. The new Czech Civil Code (NOZ) introduces big changes, one of these changes is definition of things „in a wide-ranging way“, including introducing the term of things we cannot touch (res incorporales of Roman Law). In this context, the particular importance has the concept of animal. The article examines the concept of animal in the Czech and Roman Law, especially relationship between man and dog. The legal regime of a dog in the Roman Law and in the present Czech Law is significantly different. The Roman Law considered the dog as a thing and dogs in Roma had the same status as other things (including slaves). The article deals with the legal status of dogs as things, masteręs responsibility for a damage caused by their dog (actio de pauperiae). In the Czech Law in contrary, an animal does not have the status of thing, but „entity“, that is different. However, dogs in ancient Rome had the special status as well as in the Czech Republic nowadays. In Rome, dogs were considered as an example of fidelity (canis fidelis), dogs were not only hunting companions, but also pets (pets). Dogs were provided with special care by doctors-specialists, we have preserved statues of dogs and their image on headstones, together with their masters. We can find the same status of dogs also in life of present-day Czechs who invest large sums in the health care for dogs, in their diet and even in their look. Then we can see that despite the different legislation in the Czech Republic and in ancient Rome, the position of man and dog is very similar, despite all the social and cultural differences. The article deals with the matter of roots of such position. It seeks the answer by means of evolution psychology in human race prehistory. The close relationship to the dogs is given by the fact that dogs were the first domesticated animals. The article describes the process of domestication when dogs became guards of prehistoric peopleęs home, as well as their companions on hunting. This is how the strong bond between man and dog was created and it continues until these days.
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Content available remote Sexuální morálka a královská autorita:
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EN
The study is devoted to the issue of legal codifications of the Bohemian king Charles IV and the Polish king Casimir III the Great from the perspective of their sexual moral regulation in the form of punishment for the crimes of kidnapping and rape. In it, the author examines in a comparative way the connection of both legal norms to earlier legal customs, their relation to public law initiative, to archaic legal customs and to the social conditionality of the punishment of both sexual crimes.
EN
The problems of court relations with the other branches forming the constitutional triad of powers (the legislative and the executive) as well as judicial independence are among the most sensitive issues, which never lose their relevance. The article deals with the problems by reference to the constitutional and ordinary law of 1918–1920, the circulars of the Ministry of Justice, other legislation, as well as research papers. A retrospective analysis of certain issues is also presented (by way of establishing links with the Constitution of 3 May 1791 and other historical sources of law). The co-authors have arrived at the conclusion that, while refl ecting general observance of the principle of separation of powers and the intention to ensure judicial independence, the Founding Principles of 1918 and 1919, adopted by the State Council, and the Interim Constitution of 1920, adopted by the Constituent Assembly, enshrined the legislative and the executive powers explicitly but judicial power only implicitly (the texts do not even mention courts and the respective principle is derived from the others). Due to the severe shortage of lawyers in 1918–1920, judges were allowed to serve in the executive branch at the same time. The Ministry of Justice explained the law to judges, while judges assisted the executive (such as the police) in discharging their functions. All that contradicted the principles of separation of powers and judicial independence but was accepted as an unavoidable and temporary arrangement. The Ministry of Justice tried to avoid abusing its power and harming the dignity of the judicial system’s employees by intrusive oversight, and acted in their regard as discretely as possible. It encouraged judicial independence and activism and demonstrated confi dence in the courts.
EN
The article concerns a legal way of election the President in the Polish legal order between second world war. The April Constitution 1935, which made the head of state the most powerful body, tried to reflect the political orientation of its creators. The Constitution from 1935 was made personally for Józef Piłsudski. The political option, ruling Poland after 1926, had to construct the wise of president election, which would be secure for the this option.
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Content available Prostytucja w Polsce
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EN
In 1952 Poland ratified the Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others that abolished the criminalisation of the prostitution. But the same Polish authorities decided to continue their former policy using administrative and quasi-judicial institutions. Was it a way to control women or to control the whole society?
EN
The legal source texts are an essential didactic tool in the teaching history of law. The students should not only read texts, but they should look for the specific information in them, interpret and analyse. Working with the source texts with the students has a different aim than in the historical studies. It serves to legal interpretation of the regulations, that were in force in the past. It replaces the external and internal 51 criticism. For the teaching of the legal history, it is important that the editions of the legal source texts should include the examples of administrative and judicial application of law and the regional aspect (so interesting for students).
PL
Teksty źródłowe są niezbędnym środkiem w dydaktyce przedmiotów historycznoprawnych. Studenci powinni nie tylko czytać źródła, ale również nabywać umiejętności odszukiwania w nich konkretnych informacji, uczyć się ich interpretacji i analizy. Praca z tekstami źródłowymi na zajęciach ze studentami ma inny cel niż w badaniach naukowych. Służy wykładni prawa przepisów, które obowiązywały w przeszłości z mniejszą rolą wewnętrznej i zewnętrznej krytyki źródła. W nauczaniu historii prawa ważne jest, by wydania tekstów źródłowych zawierały przykłady administracyjnego i sądowego stosowania prawa oraz posiadały – interesujący dla studentów – walor regionalny.
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Content available Co zostaje po uczonym prawniku?
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EN
Questions and answers of the paper concern academic achievements of law professors seen at least two decades after their death. What remains of a law professor: good character, disciples and students, specificity of university genealogy, important research topics, work and writings, institutions created, international research friendships? Who can be considered a great lawyer? What are the criteria to asses it?
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Niniejszy esej stanowi próbę filozoficznej refleksji nad rolą i celem edukacji prawniczej. Szczególnie uwzględnia rolę, jaką w tej edukacji mogą odegrać metody prawa porównawczego, teorii prawa oraz historii prawa. Autor wyraża pogląd, że edukacja prawnicza nie powinna ograniczać się jedynie do przekazywania wiedzy o aktualnie obowiązującym prawie, lecz przede wszystkim powinna przekazywać umiejętności niezbędne w pracy prawnika. Wśród nich autor wyróżnia umiejętności zawodowe i akademickie, twierdząc jednocześnie, że błędny jest pogląd, zgodnie z którym praktykom potrzebne są wyłącznie te pierwsze, a ludziom nauki te drugie. Przeciwnie, umiejętności akademickie, przede wszystkim zdolność do wyjaśniania, systematyzacji oraz krytycznej oceny prawa, mogą być nad wyraz przydatne praktykom zarówno z ich punktu widzenia, jak i punktu widzenia społeczeństwa. Wśród tych umiejętności metody prawa porównawczego i historii prawa odgrywają nad wyraz istotną rolę. Perspektywa prawnoporównawcza pozwala prawnikom zrozumieć, że dany system prawny mógłby wyglądać zupełnie inaczej, pozwala zrozumieć szczególne cechy własnego system prawnego oraz z pomocą historii prawa wytłumaczyć dlaczego przybrał on taki, a nie inny kształt. Zdolność do tego typu analizy jest przydatna zarówno w globalnym kontekście harmonizacji i zbliżania porządków prawnych, jak i w czysto narodowym kontekście reform prawa oraz refleksji nad wartościami leżącymi u jego podstaw.
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The legal predicament of today in Europe and beyond takes the form of a devaluation of the meaning of legality, constitutionality and, of the rule of law. What we are dealing with is yet another crisis of both the tradition of the Rechtsstaat in continental setting and, more broadly, of liberal legality. While this disruption within the sphere of the law seems to mirror the reshuffling in established politics that took place over the last twenty years, it traces back to central jurisprudential questions that have made the substance of crucial debates during the interwar and have fashioned both the field of constitutional theory of the continent and our jurisprudential apparatus for approaching the nexus between law and politics. In this article I argue that the apparent uchronia that the current status of the law opens in relation to past theoretical questions that were seeking to ground legality, is neither a simple by-product of a Zeigeist oversaturated by appeals to procedural democracy or for returns to sovereign power, nor a mere regression to past juridico-political settings. It is a historical development that has been dormant for the past decades, yet has slowly undermined legal thought and praxis. Revisiting, as a matter of historical and jurisprudential inquiry, the context and the content of this original opposition between liberal legality and its enemy, is a way of understanding what constructs our own contemporary situation.
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Content available remote Legal cultures between Europe and the Far East in historical context
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EN
The paper considers legal transplants and their launching into legal systems of countries in the Far East, namely China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam since 1868. The author follows the impact of individual foreign legal systems stemming from Continental Law (the German subsystem and the Roman subsystem) and Common Law. The impact of German law prevailed in the Far East countries listed above, but the influence of US law primarily in modern Japan should not be underestimated. The paper deals with the transposition of foreign patterns into the respective written law, i.e., law in books. In addition, it demonstrates through concrete examples how interpretation of the law in books developed, i.e., law in action, which quite often shifted the original European meaning closer to traditional East-Asian mode of thinking.
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The article presents some parts of the history of Roman law studies in Poland after World War II – a time when Polish scholars were faced with a new political reality. The author’s inspiration is Maria Zabłocka’s work, Romanistyka polska po II wojnie światowej (Warszawa 2002), in which some periods during this time span were mentioned. These periods have been highlighted by Roman law scholars’ tasks pointed out in the article. The tasks resulted from urgent challenges, concerning the creation of handbooks and scripts of Roman law, and caused by political and ideological changes, which also affected science. During the Soviet science domination period, the ideology of the socialist regime played a great role in politics. Marxist historians and ideology rejected Roman law as the law of the slavery-based system, in which private property dominated. Their views on this subject also permeated the research on Roman law, which was to be studied in an appropriate way, based on the method of historical materialism. Roman law scholars also tried to apply the Marxist method in their research. The state socialist authorities in People’s Poland were against the study of Roman law and tried to eliminate it from the university curriculum, as it was deemed unsuitable for the new ideologies. Despite these difficulties and pressures, thanks to the efforts of Roman law scholars made to carry out these tasks, Roman law maintained its position as a university subject and is still taught in centres of legal education in Poland. Key words: Roman Law studies, legal history, jurisprudence in Poland after World War II    
PL
Przedmiotem artykułu jest analiza rozwoju nauki prawa rzymskiego w powojennej Polsce, gdy romaniści musieli odnaleźć się w nowej rzeczywistości politycznej i ustrojowej. Inspiracją autora stała się m.in. publikacja Marii Zabłockiej, Romanistyka polska po II wojnie światowej, Warszawa 2002, w której pojawiły się próby wskazania pewnych etapów w okresie nią objętym, warte doprecyzowania. Zostały one wyeksponowane w artykule poprzez nakreślenie nowych zadań, przed jakimi romaniści zostali postawieni bezpośrednio po wojnie. Wynikały one z pilnych potrzeb, np. w zakresie zapewnienia pomocy dydaktycznych w zakresie prawa rzymskiego, jak również ze zmian ustrojowych i ideologicznych mających wpływ również na naukę. W czasie dominacji nauki sowieckiej w tzw. państwach socjalistycznych ideologia marksistowska i marksistowscy historycy odrzucali prawo rzymskie jako normy prawne formacji niewolniczej, opartej na własności prywatnej. Poglądy na ten temat przenikały również do romanistycznych badań naukowych, prawo rzymskie należało badać w odpowiedni sposób, oparty na metodzie materializmu historycznego. Władze w Polsce Ludowej próbowały wówczas również zlikwidować prawo rzymskie w kształceniu uniwersyteckim jako nieodpowiadające nowej ideologii. Pomimo trudności, przez które kadry romanistyczne musiały przebrnąć w okresie Polski Ludowej, i dzięki staraniom włożonym w realizację postawionych przed nimi zadań prawo rzymskie utrzymało swą pozycję odrębnego przedmiotu dydaktycznego i jest nadal wykładane w uniwersyteckich ośrodkach edukacji prawniczej w Polsce.  
PL
The War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718–1720) was a conflict between Spain and the other major European powers over the balance of power in Italy. France and Britain jointly intervened on the side of the attacked party, Emperor Charles VI. In February 1720, the conflict was resolved when Philip V of Spain finally adhered to the Treaty of London (2 August 1718). The decision to go to war was contentious at the French court. For the benefit of public opinion, Philip, duke of Orléans and Regent of France, had to wage war against the Spanish Prime Minister, Cardinal Giulio Alberoni, rather than against the Sun King’s grandson, Philip V. Moreover, whereas French and British diplomats found consensus as regards maintaining the principles of the Peace of Utrecht (11 April 1713), they remained commercial rivals. This article lifts a tip of the veil covering the complex trade relations during the conflict. Spain tried to placate and reassure French merchants, and conversely to punish their British counterparts. The British fleet patrolled the Mediterranean, searching French vessels as well as those of neutral states. The Emperor, though allied to France and Britain, could not prevent Neapolitan corsairs from preying on their trade. Moreover, French ships illegally furnished the Spanish army. Finally, France and Britain hoped to quell the abuse of neutral powers in the conflict (Tuscany, Genoa, Venice) by imposing upon them a duty to chase Spanish privateers from their harbours. The complaints of French traders, as indicated by the consuls to the Conseil de la Marine and the Regent himself at the apex of the French government, reveal pleas borne out of frustration, as well as appeals to either the law of nations or consular protection to shield merchants from assaults and abuses. When war was declared, inimical, friendly or allied relations in high politics seemed almost irrelevant. The military conflict generated uncertainty and damaged the reputation of the French flag. Diplomatic pressure on the neutral powers was seen as being more effective than reliance on seemingly corrupt or biased local jurisdictions. The Regent’s management of the conflict – in close collaboration with Britain, despite all the difficulties on the ground – is all the more remarkable.
EN
The study examines and presents veterinary and legal (including canonical) aspects of livestock in the benefice institutions. Selected features of the legal status of animals in the beneficiary property of the parish priest, in the land of the diocese of Tarnów (Poland) were examined and described. In the period 1918–1939 in Poland, the parish benefice was, both from the factual and legal point of view, an important component of the exercise of RC offices, with animals being one of the most important – though not unproblematic – elements of the living. It was revealed, that these problems provided a basis for adopting synodal resolutions at the local, national and common levels, which focused on the concept of proper agricultural and economic use of animals as the farm components.
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tom 7
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The merging of the Constitutional and Legal History of Poland with the General Constitutional and Legal History into one subject Constitutional and Legal History gave rise to the fear that Polish constitutional and legal institutions may be blurred in the area of general history. The absence of individual subject, whose name reflected Polishness, might contribute to the weakening of the spirit of historical community of Polish society, the spirit being previously moulded by the discussed subject. The essential educational element in the forming of the frame of mind of the lawyer inclined toward humanities is the knowledge of above all the constitutional history of his own country, the evolution of its political institutions and the law applied in courts. The discussed modification of the process of educating future lawyers at the Faculty of Law, Administration and Economy of the University of Wrocław may push to the background questions which laid the emphasis on the vernacular legal culture of the state. It is from the native constitutional and legal history that we obtain the first line experience. The subject that was thus eliminated was the one characterized by rich historiography and the one that emphasized the historical continuity of Polish state and law.
EN
Today we are witnessing a fundamental shift in Public International Law (PIL) in which the number of actors increases dramatically and in which communication means power. The matrix of PIL is undergoing a major change. This change is not abrupt but has to be seen in the context of the shift away from the Westphalian model of PIL since 1945. Also, globalization is not a new phenomenon, although the current era of globalization, which was made possible due to the fall of the iron curtain and recent technological developments, raises the question how to describe the emerging international legal community in terms of international legal theory. As the importance of the role of the state as an actor of international law is reduced (albeit not to a degree that the state would lose its de facto primacy among the subjects of international law), other actors are gaining ground, in particular international organizations, transnational corporations, NGOs and individuals. Today the latter not only have rights under Public International Law but are also involved in the creation of new rules of international law.
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Content available remote Do exilu - Zdeněk Kryštůfek a ti druzí z Ústavu státu a práva ČSAV
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This study has two parts. The first one is particularly focused on Zdeněk Kryštůfek (1920–2011), a prominent Czech lawyer and political scientist, who had been working at the Institute of State and Law of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences until 1969 when he went into exile for political reasons. Later, he settled down in the USA, becoming a professor at the University of Colorado at Boulder, CO. The study reminds of his personal history: his imprisonment in a German concentration camp in 1939-1940, his uncertain existence in the first years after the communist coup in February 1948, and his scientific contributions, especially in the field of the history of political ideologies, development of legal positivism, legal sociology, and of the analysis of the functioning of totalitarian communist countries in the 20th century. In its second part, this study is dedicated to other persons originating from the Institute of State and Law of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences who also went into exile after August 1968. These included the international relations expert Jaroslav Žourek (1908–1979), political scientist Josef Pokštefl (1927–2013), political scientist and later semiologist Ivan Bystřina (1924–2004) as well as the political scientist and politician Zdeněk Mlynář (1930–1997). Their destinies and professional interests are summarized. Above all, however, it deals in a comparative way with the question of motivations that might have led them to leave their homeland.
CS
Tato studie má dvě části. V první z nich se zaměřuje na Zdeňka Kryštůfka (1920–2011), významného českého právníka a politologa, který působil až do roku 1969 v Ústavu státu a práva ČSAV, odkud pak odešel do politického exilu. Etabloval se později v USA a stal se profesorem University of Colorado v Boulderu. Studie připomíná jeho životní osudy (mimo jiné jeho věznění v německém koncentračním táboře v letech 1939–1940 a nejistou existenci v prvních letech po komunistickém převratu v únoru 1948) i jeho odborný přínos zejména na poli dějin politických ideologií, vývoje právního pozitivismu, právní sociologie a analýzy fungování totalitních komunistických států ve 20. století. V druhé části se tato studie obrací k dalším osobám, které po srpnu 1968 odešly z Ústavu státu a práva ČSAV do exilu. Patřili mezi ně odborník na mezinárodní vztahy Jaroslav Žourek (1908–1979), politolog Josef Pokštefl (1927–2013), politolog a později sémiolog Ivan Bystřina (1924–2004), jakož i politolog a politik Zdeněk Mlynář (1930–1997). Studie shrnuje jejich životní osudy a odborné zaměření. Především se však komparativním způsobem zabývá otázkou, které motivace je pravděpodobně dovedly k opuštění jejich vlasti.
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Content available remote Mýtus o neexistenci českého nevolnictví. Studie o historiografii
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The article explains that the thesis about the non-existence of the Bohemian serfdom originated already in the error of Karl Grünberg and Alfred Fischel who misunderstood the 17th century discussions on the legality of serfdom as proofs of the non-existence of serfdom. Whereas Grünberg and Fischel based their judgment on the comparison with Roman slavery, today serfdom is compared with African American slavery. For this reason, the last section draws some preliminary comparisons with the slavery of African Americans. It points out the role of violence and racism, but also the fact that serfs were paying taxes.
EN
Starting with the Middle Ages, the system of writs (forms of actions) began to dominate the English law. Like Roman actiones which may be regarded as equivalents of writs, thus also the latter allowed to determine the circumstances in which an individual was guaranteed to protection of law. The list of writs was exhaustive while the law was considered to be something that was not subjected to changes. Therefore the legal fictions were found to be the only mechanism that made it possible to adapt the common law to the evolving socio-economic circumstances. Thanks to these fictions the parties involved in the litigation could reach the objectives that they desired and that otherwise (without resorting to the fiction) might be unattainable by them. The exploitation of the fiction consisted in the invoking by the trial participant the circumstances that notoriously were not true, the adversary party being simultaneously prevented from proving the opposite. In the course of time the fictions became a characteristic feature of the common law. It was thanks to their application that in the 15th through 17th centuries the scope of the Westminster courts’ jurisdictional competence became enlarged. The fictions enabled these courts to settle matters that originally were beyond the scope of their jurisdiction. The application of fictions resulted also in the broadening of the scope within which the particular writs could be resorted to. This consequently led to the extention of legal protection to the situations with respect to which the earlier common law proved helpless for the lack of any legal remedy.
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