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Sample of archaeofaunal material, in which domesticated animals (75.2%) prevailed over the wild ones (24.8%), had been analysed within the research at the excavated medieval settlement site from the 12th-13th centuries.
The authoress insists that animal remains from Busówno stronghold demonstrate a certain distinction while compared to materials found at other fortified sites in eastern Poland. Sites such as Czersk, Sasiadka, or Tykocin represented an economy model focused on cattle meat consumption and more developed hunting. At all sites horse bones were more frequent, probably of animals hunted for their meat. It seems that a certain economic model in eastern Polish fortified sites may appear including frequent hunting for horses and other large animals. Besides, mostly beef was consumed, followed by pork, and more seldom, lamb. Busówno site was much more of rural life style with poorly developed hunting resulting in lower consumption of horse meat. However beef dominates, it is just followed by pork. Lamb frequency was significant, especially in stage II.
The number of studied and described sites from the Bronze Age from the territory of northeastern Poland is very small. The latest study of residual materials from the older period of the Bronze Age dates as far back as 80 years ago. This article constitutes therefore a significant improvement of the state of research in this region. Unfortunately the settlement model of the Bronze Age in northeastern Poland and the briefly functioning, small settlements from this time, which may even have been mere camps, do not provide a lot of materials, almost exclusively pottery. There were also two cremation graves probably connected to this settlement. The occurrence of single cremation burials in the direct vicinity of the settlement is similar to the situation observed in the Trzciniec sites from northern Mazovia. The features of the pottery items from Góra Strekowa suggest stronger links with the regions neighboring with Podlasie - western Belarus - rather than with well-explored Trzciniec sites from other regions of Poland. Faunal materials and vegetal macro-remains were also studied in the case of the settlement in Góra Strekowa.
Following paper is focused on the occurrence of animal bones in the standard grave closed finds of the western enclave of the cultural complex of the southeastern urnfield cultures. The issue is elaborated with regard to the cremation burial ground of the Middle to Late Bronze Age in Radzovce, dist. Lučenec. It was excavated almost completely during the 20th century. With its 1334 unearthed graves it belongs to the largest necropolises of this period in Central Europe. In addition to human bones burnt, as well as unburnt animal bones were identified in 91 graves. Their occurrence is probably related to the specific practices of the burial rite - placing the portions of animal meat (food offerings/sacrificial gifts) either to a deceased on the pyre, or directly into the grave. To the validity of this interpretation similar archaeological finds indicate, as well as ancient and medieval written sources and ethnological observations of modern times. Analysed cattle, goat/sheep and pig bones are brought into the context with the inner chronology of the burial ground.
In the present study, we deal with relatively numerous bone, antler and tooth artefacts of the Vekerzug culture, which come mainly from graves. Their settlement findings are yet less frequent because of limited state of publishing. Providing a more complex overview of these finds was at the centre of our interest, focused mainly on their cultural-spatial analysis, identifying the possible function of some types of artefacts and the analysis of decorative motifs on some bone/antler objects. In the Vekerzug culture, bone and antler artefacts are typological though less varied, but some of them like decorated hollow cylindrical objects, iron knives with a zoomorphic and/or geometric ornaments on the bone/antler grip and two-piece razors are its typical feature. Some types of weapons and their parts, horse harnesses, tools and toilet instruments were made of bone and antler. Pieces of bone and animal teeth were sometimes used for personal adornments. In the Vekerzug culture, the occurrence of some types of bone/antler artefacts we can associate with the influences from the eastern Hallstatt cultural milieu, while the eastern relations are rarely observed here.
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