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Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2016
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tom 71
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nr 8
644 – 655
EN
The paper highlights Popper’s falsifiability as the demarcation criterion neither of science nor of empirical science, but of empirical content. The difference is of utmost importance for several reasons. First, it shows that the most widespread criticisms of Popper’s criterion are misguided. Second, it sheds new light on the relations between being empirical and being scientific. Third, it explains what still remains typical of empiricism after it has been purged from the three dogmas as described by Quine and Davidson. The paper elaborates on all the three points.
2
Content available remote The Davidson-Quine Dispute on Meaning and Knowledge: A Concise Guide
100%
EN
The paper addresses the debate between Donald Davidson and W.V.O. Quine on the nature of meanings and knowledge. It is argued that Davidson's misgivings, though interesting, are not devastating for Quine's version of empiricism, which is not easily translatable into traditional philosophical categories.
EN
Condillac's sensualist epistemology used to be combined with Locke's empiristic accomplishments, following Condillac's opinion himself. The French philosopher, while appreciating this solution, sought to develop it, and in particular he wished to make it more profound. He wanted to formulate special 'metaphysics' of knowledge, the synonym of genetic analyses that were supported to answer the question: how and why is knowledge possible? The author proves that, like in the case of Locke, the point of reference in Condillac's epistemology was Descartes' solution, including his theory of science.
EN
The aim of the paper is to give a partial but systematic account of Willard van Orman Quine's philosophical work. At the beginning the influence of neopositivism on Quine's philosophical attitude is sketched and the role that the criticism of the analytic-synthetic dichotomy played in the development of modern empiricism is shown. These and other issues are seen in the context of the doctrine of the indeterminacy of translation, which is the main topic of the paper. The most important consequences of the radical translation experiment are discussed, especially ontological relativity, the indeterminacy of translation and Quine's criticism of traditional semantical concepts. In the context of the empirical underdetermination thesis, the ontological character of the indeterminacy of translation is displayed. In the last part of the paper, physicalism and the assumption of the universal translatability of languages are also briefly discussed. The assumption made implicitly by Quine exemplifies his anti-relativistic standpoint.
EN
James’s concept of empirical relations is an attempt to blur the alleged boundary between the field of metaphysics and natural science as well as to discover the realm of pure experience. This paramount reality is an outward world compatible with the details of lived experience and the whole context of associated realities. The status of the principles of radical empiricism (the postulate, the statement of fact and the generalized conclusion) is debatable. Is the doctrine of “pure experience” an actual anti-dogmatic “philosophic attitude” serving to explain the nature of knowledge as well as to understand pragmatism from an epistemological perspective or is it a fundamental doctrine, independent of pragmatism as such?
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2015
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tom 70
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nr 8
610 – 619
EN
The problem of demarcation may take on many forms. A philosopher may ask what is a typical of “true knowledge”, or whether science provides it, and if it does, what the reasons are. Thus he faces a demanding task of specifying the particularity of science as such because he has to find necessary as well as sufficient conditions of distinguishing between science and non-science. Add the urge to distinguish between meaningful and meaningless language expressions, and you get the ambition typical for the 20th century logical empiricism. The primary aim of the paper is to sum up a critical rationalist’s criticisms of demarcation criteria proposed by logical empiricism. The secondary aim is to link the criticisms, which are roughly known in our country, with the better known opinions of W. V. Quine and D. Davidson on three dogmas of empiricism.
7
Content available remote THE LONG SLOVAK NINETEENTH CENTURY (Dlhe slovenske devatnaste storocie)
88%
EN
The article approaches the phenomenon of Slovak literary Romanticism through the idea of the so-called 'long 19th century', a longer perspective than the duration of the so-called national revival. The anti-modernist attitudes of a great part of the Slovak literary intelligentsia throughout the 19th century can be suspended in the cultural-historical or social-historical idea of modernization. With the hindsight of the contemporary struggles between the empirical and constructivist historiography, Slovak Romanticism appears as a cultural initiative that combines the moment of rational evaluation of the socio-cultural situation of the Slovak national community in the middle of the 19th century with the constructivist (idealistic) moment. The various combinations of both moments lead in the Slovak Romantic literature to the creation of neo-mythological self-representations, which are discussed in the second part of the paper.
EN
The study titled The Italian Travels of Gustáv Kazimír Zechenter - Laskomerský researches the particularities of Italian travels as a phenomenon in the work of the author in question in the context of other authors´ travelogues written in the 19th century as well as the differences between the individual Laskomerský´s travelogues. Laskomerský eliminated the ideological and romantic influences in the genre to a great extent, strengthened its informative-educational aspect and enlivened it with a style containing anecdotes and other humorous elements. As can be seen in the study, though, the travelogue Zo Slovenska do Ríma /From Slovakia to Rome/ is different from the other travelogues by Laskomerský. Its analysis and comparison with the author´s autobiography helps us find out that the reason why it is different is fictitiousness – so far unnoticed by its interpreters, which made the travelogue feel overloaded with travel-guidebook-like information, and, on the other hand, revived the national aspect characteristic of the Romantic discourse. Empiricism is important for Laskomerský´s work regardless of genre; may it be absent anywhere it is substituted by ideology. This proves the author´s interposition between the two types of literary discourse.
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nr 1
72 – 82
EN
The article offers a critical appraisal of the modernist claim that the Buddha’s teaching (P. Dhamma) as recorded in the Pali Canon has rational and empirical character thereby meeting the criteria of scientific knowledge valid from the nineteenth century onwards. Buddhist modernism originated in the middle of the nineteenth century as a reaction to both Western science and religion which – in hands of colonial powers – challenged Buddhism as an instrument legitimizing indigenous political systems and offering a relevant worldview. Many of the arguments introduced by these early reformers are used by Buddhist and Western modernists even nowadays. The author argues that while formalization of the polemical discussion and rational argumentation played an important role in the maintaining further and spreading of the Dhamma and though personal “experience” is presented in the Pali Canon as a sole means legitimizing the teacher’s activity, these aspects are actually set in a context (e.g. uncritical acceptance of traditional philosophical concepts or “verification” of the teaching through alternations of consciousness) which prevents the Dhamma to be attributed the characteristics claimed by modernists.
EN
The paper gives an overall account of the main features of the philosophy of William James which in the century following his decease has been constantly revaluated. The author focuses on his permanent presence in philosophy, psychology and humanities in the 20th century. The close correlation between James's style of philosophizing and his personality traits is being stressed. The key aspects of his conceptions of truth, consciousness, experience, religious and metaphysical beliefs are briefly outlined as well.
EN
Two great modern classical liberals, Friedrich von Hayek and Milton Friedman were very influential economists. Their works on economic method and methodology are worth particular attention. Despite similarities in their ideology, their views in the field of philosophy of science were poles apart, although at the same time they both considered themselves to be followers of Popper. This paper attempts to resolve the issue of who might be closer to this philosopher. The first section introduces the main task. The second section briefly describes Popper's idea of falsification. The third section summarizes Friedman's famous essay on method. The fourth section presents Hayek's approach as opposed to it. The fifth section offers concluding comments.
EN
In the language of science there are some theoretical (abstract) terms like molecule, momentum or space. Some of the empiricists are afraid of using them because they can implicate metaphysics (realism or nominalism). Rudolf Carnap in 'Empiricism, Semantics and Ontology' argues that beyond theoretical terms there is no metaphysics nor ontology because everything is reduced to the linguistic framework, in which he distinguishes internal and external questions we can ask. Internal questions and answers are restricted to the using of the new forms of expressions which are currently needed. External questions are often seen as questions of metaphysics but in fact, says Carnap, they are pragmatic questions concerning linguistic framework, such as: should we accept the term 'momentum' in the scheme of physical language? In this paper the author will analyse Carnap's arguments from the above-mentioned essay and consider whether he correctly solved the problem of the external question. Do really theoretical terms not implicate any ontology? To answer these questions he will confront Carnap's arguments with Willard Orman Van Quine's.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2014
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tom 69
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nr 4
342 – 354
EN
This article focuses on the consequences of Peirce’s aspiration to reconstruct crucial issues of modern epistemology inherent in Locke’s and Hume’s empiricism. His most important result is a unique doctrine of signs (semiotics), which he developed alongside his well-known doctrine of pragmatism until 1902 – 1903, when these two doctrines undergo a desired synthesis. The article offers an analysis of the difference between Locke’s and Peirce’s accounts of signification and – show us how Peirce reconstructs Hume’s idea of associationism. Peirce analyzes the phenomenon of mental association in three different areas: in psychology, logic, and in the so-called methodeutic inquiry, where logic and psychology cooperate. This inquiry had led Peirce to the point of intersection, where philosophical concept of habit and philosophical concept of inference meet. His pragmatic and semiotic studies resulted in a truly unique conception of meaning. To sum up: Peirce’s deconstruction of Locke’s account of signification via reconstructing Hume’s associationism creates a philosophical base of Peirce’s best known project – his pragmatism.
EN
The article investigates some of the major themes in the history of psychology and philosophy in connection with the Molyneux-question. The first section investigates the philosophical debates concerning the theoretical possibility of recovery from blindness. The authors show the several connections of 17th- and 18th-century replies to earlier (at times even Aristotelian and Epicurean) perceptual theories, discuss replies by Locke, Berkeley, Reid, Diderot, and others. The development of surgical techniques and how the Molyneux-question (originally a thought-experiment) was instrumental in the development of experimental procedures based on the analysis of cases reported by Cheselden, Home and Franz is discussed. The recognition of critical periods in perceptual development and research on cortical plasticity in the last decades questioned the fruitfulness of the original query by Molyneux. As a result, the original formulation of the question has ceased to be instrumental to the progress of research, and, instead, several reformulations have taken its place. On a more abstract level, the question has been reinterpreted as addressing the intermodal transfer: (how) can tactile and visual representations interact? Classical experiments by Meltzoff and Moore, Streri and Gentaz show intermodal transfer days after birth. Apart from reviewing these results, in the last section the authors discuss two theoretical frameworks: the one proposed by Monique Radeau, where from an amodal sensory system of newborns a gradual differentiation gives rise to the specific modalities, and the one recently termed 'sensorimotor' approach by Kevin O'Regan és Alva Noë, rejecting traditional representation-based views and stressing sensorimotor contingencies and active exploration of the environment. In their analysis the authors show that even in these novel frameworks there is no trivial answer to the modified Molyneux-question addressing intermodality. Finally a suggestion is made to reconstruct Molyneux's original question as a neurological one in such a way that the question might once more receive genuine interest from experimental approaches.
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