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PL
The paper shows a review of the changes that have occurred in the wedding ceremony and the process of the choosing of the spouse among the Bedouins in the North of Israel, in comparison between past and present, with emphasis of the changes that have occurred in this process. The findings of the research study are based on field research and observations in the Bedouin community in the North of Israel.
PL
The role of the educational counsellor in schools has undergone modification in response to recent changes in social, familial and pupil characteristics. The traditional, one-on-one approach has gradually been replaced with collaborative methods that are more in keeping with the times, more comprehensive and more proactive. One method of collaborative teaming that has increasingly found its way into schools is consultation. This is an indirect intervention process based on interaction between counsellors (“consultants”) and teachers (“consultees”) where the former provide professional advice, within their fields of specialization, for dealing with specific problems encountered by teachers in their day-to-day work. It is meant to support teachers in dealing with the demanding school environment by primarily working directly with them rather than with pupils and by providing important professional resources and problem-solving skills. My research examined this method from the perspective of teachers in Israeli schools in Nazareth, where the student population and the teachers are Arab. Data were collected using in-depth interviews. Among other things, the results indicated a willingness on the part of teachers to adjust to new methods but pointed to systemic obstacles to effective implementation.
EN
The aim of study is to explain the link between gender and traffic accidents in Israel. Traffic violations are considered as intentional deviations from practices that are crucial to maintaining safety while driving. These violations are commonly referred to as a significant factor in causing traffic accidents; therefore, when examining the case of traffic accidents it is extremely important to look at factors involved in traffic violations as well. This article serves only to propose the thesis of honour cultures as a significant local factor contributing to traffic accidents, but its resolution is much too wide to be able to baseroad-safety programs upon it. A further development of this idea, on a local basis, will thus be of great help in the field.
PL
The aim of study is to explain the link between gender and traffic accidents in Israel. Traffic violations are considered as intentional deviations from practices that are crucial to maintaining safety while driving. These violations are commonly referred to as a significant factor in causing traffic accidents; therefore, when examining the case of traffic accidents it is extremely important to look at factors involved in traffic violations as well. This article serves only to propose the thesis of honour cultures as a significant local factor contributing to traffic accidents, but its resolution is much too wide to be able to base road-safety programs upon it. A further development of this idea, on a local basis, will thus be of great help in the field.
EN
In this article I propose the term “Multicultural (un)employment”, which was created during the analysis of the situation in the multicultural Israeli labor market. First, I describe multiculturalism in Israel. Next, I discuss the Israeli labor market from a societal perspective. And then I characterized the Israeli labor market in view of the internal-group. The article is completed by the following conclusions. Statistics in Israel show low unemployment in a multicultural society but these statistics do not cover the groups which hardly participate in the labor market (Ultra-orthodox and Arabs). These groups are characterized by the cultural difference and high unemployment rate.
EN
The situation of conflict between Israelis and Palestinians has lasted for over a century with half of the century of increasing violence, especially after the Six Days War. The long-standing occupation has been leading to mental take over by this issue and dehumanization of opponents in both parties’ minds. Although in last decade one could see some symptoms of peace process, especially after Oslo agreement, violence always erupted despite the official papers. In this paper I will examine the conditions of societies in the Palestinian Autonomy and Israel with special emphasis on NGOs. Although it is obvious that civil society cannot be narrowed to the non-governmental organizations, one can say that the NGOs are the most visible and measurable among the signs of existence of civil society.
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Content available Income inequality in Israel between 2003 and 2014
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EN
Inequality in the distribution of income in the population is an important economic indicator. Today, economic inequality receives considerable attention due to the book of Thomas Piketty Capital in the 21st Century. The tremendous media coverage of the topic also attracted the attention of the world leaders. In many countries, the topic of inequality in income distribution was defined as a national challenge and was found at the top of the priorities of many important organizations, such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). These organizations treat income distribution as the top priority because they see the problem to be a threat to the continuation of the existence of the global economic system [Piketty and Qian 2009]. This paper aims to describe the distribution of income in Israel and provide solutions for a more equal distribution of income.
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EN
Since the early 2000s, Israel has adhered to a particularly virulent strain of economic neoliberalism which has led to an unprecedented rise in nationwide levels of poverty and inequality. Attempts to explain this phenomenon have ignored a key aspect: The need of Israel – and especially its right-wing governments – to create an economic reality that reduces the pressure Israel faces from the international community in the wake of its continued occupation of the territories.
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Content available remote Ageing policy in Israel
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EN
The goal of this work is to analyse the socio-demographic, political and economical conditions of life of the elderly in Israel, including the description of the pension system and selected services for senior citizens. It was conducted based on the analysis of source texts, statistics and reports, coming mostly from government sites, as well as international and Israeli institutions. Th e results obtained were confronted with an opinion concerning the quality of life of the elderly, provided by a 40-year-old Israeli citizen. Th is was researched in a manner of a free-form interview, which was carried out in May 2015 in Israel. Th e issues discussed in the interview outlined the structure of this work.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono m. in. podstawowe informacje dotyczące systemu katastralnego w Izraelu, w tym strukturę organizacyjną w jakiej funkcjonuje, oraz scharakteryzowano bazy danych katastralnych państwa. Znaczną część artykułu stanowi przedstawienie zasad rejestracji obiektów trójwymiarowych 3D, które zostały ustalone w ramach realizacji projektu "The Multi Layers 3D Cadastre R&D Project". Specyfikację projektu przygotował Główny Urząd Pomiarów Izraela - The Survey of Israel (SOI), a w projekcie wzięli udział eksperci wielu dziedzin, m. in. katastru, geodezji, GIS, prawa, planowania i budownictwa. Projekt ten został zainicjowany w roku 2002, a jego realizację zakończono w roku 2004. Głównym jego celem było uczynienie kolejnego kroku na drodze zastąpienia istniejącego dwuwymiarowego (2D) systemu katastralnego systemem trójwymiarowym (3D).
EN
The paper presents, among others, the basic information on the cadastral system in Israel, including its operating organisational structure, as well as characteristics of state cadastral databases. Much attention has been paid to presentation of rules of recording 3D objects, which were established within " The Multi Layers 3D Cadastre R&D Project". The Project specifics was developed by The Survey of Israel (SOI), and participants in that Projects were experts from many fields, such as cadastre, geodesy, GIS, law, planning and building industry. The Project was initialised in 2002 and its implementation was completed in 2004. Its main objective was to perform the successive step towards the replacement of the existing 2D cadastral system with the new, 3D cadastral system.
EN
The article aims at analyzing the biblical material about prophets. The undertaken considerations arrive to the conclusion that the prophets were realist strongly based upon earthly experiences while believing in God. They were not interested in favors of powerful rulers, nor did flatter ordinary people whose wants were to be always praised and admired. All they proclaimed resulted both from the analyses of the past, and the profound insight in the actual situation. Their conclusive sentence could be only one: Egypt is a delusive ally of Israel.
EN
The resumption of Polish-Israeli diplomatic relations have begun the process of rebuilding broken relationships and building new areas in political and economic co- operation. One of the most important and specific areas of elationships are cultural rela-tions between the countries, which allows direct contact between the society of those two nations. In the history of Polish-Jewish relations this area is one of the most important because without grassroots initiatives and an open mind atmosphere, the official agreements, which are both necessary and beneficial, remain insufficient. This article presents the activities of the cultural relations after 1990. The author discusses the complexity of the actions, which on one hand take into consideration the history, and on the other hand, not overestimating its significance in current relationships, they concentrate on cultural, educational and scientific cooperation which support the openness for a new dialog. In spite numerous difficulties and burdens which are current in the Polish-Jewish relations the states and the societies of both countries have taken great strides to improve the relationship.
EN
This paper explores the phenomenon of marginal identities in Israel, focusing on the Ethiopian Jewish community as a representative case study. As a multicultural nation, Israel grapples with the intricacies of integrating diverse ethnic and religious groups into its social fabric. Ethiopian Jews, a small and unique group in the Israeli social landscape, face multifaceted challenges in their quest for acceptance. The research delves into the complexities of identity formation within the Ethiopian Jewish community, considering the interplay of their history of immigration to Israel, unique religious practices, and the process of integration into Israeli society. It is accompanied by comparisons to other aliyot, in particular Mizrahi Jews and post-Soviet Jews. By analyzing the power dynamics that define Ethiopian Israelis’ status within Israel’s imagined community, this paper seeks to unveil the reasons behind their marginalization in the country, in particular focusing on the construction of Israeli national discourse. Ultimately, this paper aims to deepen the understanding of marginal identities in Israel, using the example of Ethiopian Jews to shed light on the broader challenges faced by marginalized communities in diverse societies. The paper offers valuable insights for policymakers, social advocates, and scholars striving to promote inclusivity and social cohesion within multicultural nations.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono m.in. podstawowe informacje dotyczące systemu katastralnego w Izraelu, w tym strukturę organizacyjną, w jakiej funkcjonuje, oraz scharakteryzowano bazy danych katastralnych państwa. Znaczną część artykułu stanowi przedstawienie zasad rejestracji obiektów trójwymiarowych 3D, które zostały ustalone w ramach realizacji projektu "The Multi Layers 3D Cadastre R&D Project". Specyfikację projektu przygotował Główny Urząd Pomiarów Izraela - The Survey of Israel (SOI), a w projekcie wzięli udział eksperci z wielu dziedzin, m. in. katastru, geodezji, GIS, prawa, planowania i budownictwa. Projekt ten został zainicjowany w roku 2002, a jego realizację zakończono w roku 2004. Głównym jego celem było uczynienie kolejnego kroku na drodze zastąpienia istniejącego dwuwymiarowego (2D) systemu katastralnego systemem trójwymiarowym (3D).
EN
The paper presents, among others, the basic information on the cadastral system in Israel, including its operating organisational structure, as well as characteristics of state cadastral databases. Much attention has been paid to presentation of rules of recording 3D objects, which were established within "The Multi Layers 3D Cadastre R&D Project". The Project specifics was developed by The Survey of Israel (SOI), and participants in that Projects were experts from many fields, such as cadastre, geodesy, GIS, law, planning and building industry. The Project was initialised in 2002 and its implementation was completed in 2004. Its main objective was to perform the successive step towards the replacement of the existing 2D cadastral system with the new, 3D cadastral system.
EN
This paper focuses on two narratives of Israel: Paweł Smoleńki’s Izrael już nie frunie and Ela Sidi’s Izrael oswojony. These publications function as a pretext allowing us to analyse the ways in which literary representations of this country are constructed. What seems to be particularly interesting are the similar and diverting elements of both books. Their narrations rely on the social status of a storyteller, his or her motivations, and the position he or she assumes. Reading Smoleński’s and Sidi’s works results in parallel conclusions: Israel is a hardly graspable, exotic, and – in many respects – detached space.
PL
Autorka przygląda się dwóm narracjom o Izraelu: reportażowi Pawła Smoleńskiego Izrael już nie frunie oraz opowieści Eli Sidi Izrael oswojony. Publikacje stanowią pretekst do analizy sposobu kreowania literackich reprezentacji kraju. Tym, co wydaje się szczególnie interesujące, są elementy wspólne obu książek oraz ich elementy odmienne. Czynniki wpływające na kształt narracji to rola, status i cel opowiadającego. Wnioski płynące z lektury obu tekstów są zbieżne – Izrael jest trudno uchwytnym, egzotycznym i pod wieloma względami niedostępnym miejscem.
15
Content available remote Wojny dozwolone starożytnego Izraela w świetle Starego Testamentu
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EN
The Author reconstructs the notion of the so‑called permitted war conducted by ancient Israel and described in the Old Testament. He argues that it differs considerably from the idea of holly war (YHWH war) presented at the time of the Israel conquest of the Promised Land. To prove that, he refers to the principles of permitted war stated in the Book of Deuteronomy. They included the beginning of war, the role of the priests, the duty of military service, the rules of besieging cities, and the treatment of conquered population. Moreover, he compares these principles with the war practices of other ancient nations in the Near East. As the case study, he considers the Maccabean Wars which constituted the only historically verified example of ancient Israeli military efforts. He claims that it was them that were conducted according the rules prescribed for permitted wars. At the same time, they exhibited some religious elements to be found later on in the holly wars of medieval Christianity.
EN
In recent years, the internet has become a popular medium for pregnant women seeking pregnancy-related information (Gao et al., 2012; Lagan, Sinclair & Kernohan, 2010; Romano, 2007; Song, West, Lundy & Smith-Dahmen, 2012). This study which utilized a qualitative approach explores Israeli women’s online information seeking during pregnancy. Israel is an especially interesting and important case study for exploring pregnancy-related internet use, because Israel has the highest rate of prenatal testing in the world (Lavi, 2010). The findings of this study indicated that the most prominent type of information sought by Israeli pregnant women online was focused on prenatal tests. The internet as a source of pregnancy-related information seems to function not just as a means to fulfill personal informational needs, but also to represent a broader social phenomenon of a highly medicalized pregnancy that seem to intensify uncertainty and therefore, to increase the need to rely on the internet during pregnancy.
EN
Sea freight prices have risen sharply due to the COVID-19 crisis, global shortages of ships, declining competition in the field, and containers of contagious demand. In Israel, the value for customs purposes includes the transportation costs, as in Singapore and the majority of the states. On the contrary, the United States, Australia and New Zealand, have chosen to exclude transportation costs for customs value purposes. Therefore, the increase in transportation costs leads to the increase in the value of goods for customs purposes. This increase lead to an additional collection of customs duties in Israel. The Israeli Law allows the state to facilitate importers and waive the extra customs duties, and similar and other facilitations have been made in the past, for example, in a war or strike situation. Therefore, all that is required is the flexibility and activation of goodwill on the part of the State when interpreting the Law to relieve the importers from extra duties caused by the COVID-19 crisis.
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EN
Following Chilean experiences as well as the World Bank suggestions post‑communist Poland and post-collectivist Israel—underwent deep reforms which led to the privatization of old age security. The aim of the article is to compare the Polish and Israeli paths of pension privatization in the last thirty years. The main conclusions are: (1) the economic, demographic and political environments at the moment of the design and implementation of the pension reform were quite similar in both countries; however (2) the scope and scale of the privatization was different: in Poland there was only partial shift towards private pension system while in Israel full privatization of the system was implemented; (3) the decisive factors were: the inertia of the already existing pension systems and the power of foreign influencers; (4) the retreat from privatization in Poland and the increase in Israel took place due to the different mix of disadvantages of the new pension arrangements, short-term political aims and international pressure.
EN
The aim of this article is to take a closer look at national Israeli policies in the domain of population growth. Demography plays a powerful role in understanding the Israeli society and the changes it has experienced over time. The “demographic struggle” presents the constant effort of the Jewish population to maintain, regardless of the costs, the numerical majority of the Jews in Israel. The central means to achieve the demographic dominance are the immigration policies and fertility rate, therefore the control over these factors of social life is of primary importance to the Israeli authorities. The methods of managing and influencing the two demographic indicators are discussed in the article in details, since the differences between the Arab and Jewish communities in this area are crucial. The article presents also briefly the role of demography in constituting ethnic democracy in Israel
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