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EN
The structure of p53 tumor suppressor gene and molecular mechanisms of p53 function are characterized.The effects of the p53 protein on gene transcription, control of the cell cycle, DNA repair and synthesis, cell differentiation, and progrsmmed cell death are discussed.Besides clinical implication of inactivation of the p53 gene in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapy of human cancer are mentioned.
EN
Molecular characteristics of the genome of the genus Pestivirus are presented. Differences in the genome organization between various viruses are described. The mechanism of the regulation of the RNAtranscription and the translation processes are shown. The function of the structural and unstructural proteins produced by the viruses are also discussed in this review.
EN
The control of eucaryotic class II genes transcription is unusually complicated because it is the first stage of their expression in the cell. The assortment of specific gene coding sequence as a process of selection of submission for expression genes particularly essential is. In this process, beside RNA polymerase II, the basic transcription initiation factors that form different initiation complexes with enzyme and DNA take part, as well as other protein factors, often tissue specific that interact with fragment of DNA located in the distant place of the start of transcription. The formation of transcription complex, its components and possible interaction are discussed. The control of this process are discussed on the example of contribution of protein kinases and phosphatases modifying individual proteins, influencing the change of their mutual interactions and, in consequence, differentiating transcription level of specific genes.
EN
According to Polish law, acts of civil status issued abroad possess the status of official documents in all kind of proceedings before Polish authorities. Nevertheless such foreign acts of civil status can be transcribed into Polish registers of civil status whereupon a Polish act of birth, marriage or death is created. The article strives to explain the nature of transcription, which generally should be seen as a purely technical operation, and analyses the conditions under which the transcription may take place. Special emphasis is put on the limited scope of the substantive control of foreign acts of civil status, which can be exercised only by means of the 'ordre public' clause.
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Content available remote Chromatin structure and transcriptional activity of MAG gene
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EN
Myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) is an essential component of the periaxonal architecture of the myelin sheath. Because of its potent neurite growth repressive activity, MAG is also likely to play an important role in axonal guidance during the CNS development, and to be responsible for abortive neuronal regeneration in adult CNS. The MAG gene chromatin from approximately -1.6 to +0.6 kb features MNase hypersensitivity that maydelineate the gene control region. The proximal upstream region of the gene is organized into an array of five nucleosomes with hypersensitive linkers. The core promoter is located within the first upstream linker that becomes highly hypersensitive in the course of oligodendrocyte differentiation. The adjacent upstream region contains positive and negative enhancers that are likely to streamline oligodendrocyte specific expession of the gene. The TATA-less core promoter contains novel, as yet uncharacterized initiator elements that direct the assembly of transcriptional complexes. The promoter appears to be controlled by both, the addition of activating trans-factors as progenitor cells differentiate into mature oligodendrocyte. The developmental activation of the gene is also concomitant with profound DNA demethylation that may provide auxiliary regulatory mechanisms. Hence, the upregulation of the MAG gene is differentiating oligodendrocytes entails chromantic remodeling as well as changes in the assortment of nuclear trans-factors.
EN
Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Intracellular Domain (AICD) is the product of APP processing realized by alpha- or beta-secretases and gamma-secretase. It was shown that AICD is able to interact with several proteins which regulate its stability and cellular localization. The Fe65 adaptor protein translocates AICD into nucleus where the APP-Fe65-Tip60 ternary complex may activate transcription of target genes. In the light of recent studies AICD seems to be another product of APP proteolysis endowed with important biological functions that may contribute to Alzheimer's disease pathology.
EN
Mitochondrial genetic system, comprising genome, transcription and translation processes play essential role in the function of mitochondria and thus for the survival of plants. The pathway from the genetic information encoded in the DNA to the functional protein leads through a very diverse RNA world. In this article, the current results obtained in the examination of plant mitochondrial transcription are described. Recent developments in the characterisation of promoter structure are presented.
EN
Transgene incorporation in plant genome does not mean that the gene will be active and will show expression at the required level. It is often the case that transgenic plants do not exhibit the activity of the gene introduced. Gene expression is known to be dependent on many factors such as: chimeric gene structure, proper and stable integration to the genome and proper transcription and translation. The knowledge of transgene regulation is essential for the understanding of the transcription and translation mechanisms. Each plazmid component is vital for later transgene expression. This refers to the size of T-DNA introduced, location of particular elements, leader sequences length, AUG sequences, introns presence, optimum coding gene synthesis, removal of RNA instability signals and many other possible modifications.
EN
Transliteration and transcription of Hebrew into Latin script presents a number of difficulties for a Czech native speaker. Unlike the speakers of major European languages, the Czech milieu manifests strong linguistic purism and requires the transliteration or transcription system to communicate faithfully the specific features of Hebrew phonology. Simultaneously, the Czech editors often resist to the use of the Hebrew script even in scholarly publications, emphasizing the necessity of respecting the larger public. The present study addresses the fundamental problems of transliterating and transcribing Hebrew into Czech. We deal with those phonologic patterns of various layers of Hebrew that do not have their direct equivalent in Czech phonology (e.g. the gutturals 'ayyin or h.et) and focus the issues that are subject of frequent discussions in the Czech academic circles (the fluid character of shewah mobile and its transcription). So far the problem of transfer of Hebrew into Czech was never dealt with systematically. Various systems were suggested ad hoc for the purpose of particular publications. Such systems were never accepted as generally applicable norm because they did not meet the multifaceted needs of authors, translators and editors of various texts. The present study therefore represents the first attempt to address the problem from systemic and functional perspective. As such, it is necessarily conceived as tentative. We propose five inter-related and mutually compatible systems: (1) Transliteration of consonants is convenient for Biblical studies or philological discourse in general. Faithfully communicates the Hebrew text without the vowels. (2) Vocalic transliteration adds the Hebrew vowels according to Masoretic vocalic system. (3) Homiletic transcription is a simplified (2). Consonants are faithfully transliterated, allowing for etymologic transparency. On the contrary, the vowels are simplified and punctuation is added so to enable the oral performance of the text. It is intended especially for pastoral office. (4) Philological transcription is addressing the needs of widest academic public. The consonants are faithfully distinguished. The quantity of vowels is ignored and the original Masoretic system is assimilated to Czech system of vowels (a, e, i, o, u). (5) Simplified phonetic transcription may serve the non-scholarly purposes (journals, belles-lettres). The Hebrew phonology is simplified so that no special signs are supplemented to the Czech orthographic system.
EN
This study deals with certain aspects of the relationship between dramatic text and its staging. The dramatic text itself cannot be viewed as a kind of supra individual set of instructions left by the author in a textual form to those who decide to carry out staging and performances based on them. This is partly because the very form of the dramatic text changes, for example when a manuscript is transcribed, to a form that corresponds to the actually valid conventions for the updating transcription of a language. The purpose of the transcription is to update the original language of the dramatic text to make it comprehensible and acceptable for another audience and to enable it to function even as an autonomous literary work. Although the transcription may change the original text to the minimum, even these minimal interventions lead to a change in the essence of the dramatic text. Another factor of change is the transfer of the written text into speech, while a significant role in this transfer is played by intonation, which forms the focus of the second part of this study.
EN
Language skills are not enough to understand a text correctly when translating. The Greeks and Romans left a legacy that is present in the languages of all cultural nations. To understand it properly and then interpret it, it is important to know a broader context. The term realia is Latin for „real things“ and in translation studies, is used to refer to concepts which are found in a given source culture but not in a given target culture. That‘s why the translators need and have to consult with an expert in Classical Philology.
EN
The article presents the figure of Leopold Godowski (1870-1938) and his achievements in the field of piano playing, teaching, and composition. It focuses on various aspects of his 53 Studies on Chopin etudes, such as the circumstances of their creation, their structure, their typology as proposed by the composer himself, and the analysis of that cycle from the point of view of a formal similarity of particular transcriptions to their originals. In addition the article discusses the details of the reception of that cycle in Godowski's lifetime, after his death, and in the present time.
13
Content available remote K transkripci hebrejských konsonantů a vokálů do češtiny
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EN
The article deals with the transcription of Hebrew consonants and vowels into the Czech language and offers phonetic transcription as the most useful and phonetically correct system. The system presented in the article is based on the standard phonology of modern Israeli Hebrew. It leaves aside the problem of pronunciation of biblical Hebrew, partly because of lack of space and partly because its pronunciation is artificially reconstructed and therefore does not reflect the contemporary pronunciation of Hebrew as a living and spoken language. The phonetic system presented in the article is compared with other systems already used in Czech literature. Although there are still many things to be discussed, the author thinks that a simple phonetic system should be used as the basic norm for the transcription of Hebrew in popular and scholarly literature. A similar problem of ununified transcription also appears in the transcription of Arabic and other languages written in non-Latin alphabets. This topic deserves further serious consideration on the academic level.
EN
This study presents the author`s recommendations for the transcription of Arabic texts into Slovak in scientific – mainly linguistic works, based on her own experience. There already exist a few works devoted to the so-called popular transcription, however, there are still some controversial points, as well as a whole range of dilemmas that yet have to be solved – mainly for the purposes of books specialized in Arabic linguistics and palaeography. The present part focuses on the transcription of Arabic texts not influenced by their Slovak syntactic surroundings. It also recommends a table of signs and typographical formatting to facilitate the transcription of hardly legible texts.
EN
This article deals with the inscriptions preserved on the inner surface of the coffin trough. A transcription, transliteration and translation of the hieroglyphic texts are presented in this study including the palaeographic table of hieroglyphic signs and photocopies of the inscriptions. The author of this article reports on the discovery of the title accompanying the name of the deceased person written inside the coffin as well as the names of two deities with a protective function, all of them identified on the places with the damaged surface and hieroglyphic inscriptions. The title and names of the two deities are not mentioned in the CAA catalogue published in the 1980s.
EN
The objective of our research on Petunia hybrida is to understand the role of calreticulin in the growth of pollen tubes in the pistil. The aim of this study was the first step: finding out whether CRT gene expression takes place in unpollinated and pollinated styles. It was revealed by in situ hybridization that the transcription of the calreticulin gene takes place in the transmitting cells of unpollinated and pollinated styles and in pollen tubes growing in vivo. The mRNA transcripts of the CRT gene were localized mainly on the surface of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, both in transmitting cells and in the tip cytoplasm of pollen tubes. The results of this study show that calreticulin can be involved in pollen ? pistil interaction in vivo.
EN
Abstract. tRNA has been discovered as a factor playing a central role in the translation of genetic information (encoded in DNA and transcribed to mRNA) into amino acid sequences of proteins. However, subsequent studies led to the hypothesis that during evolution, tRNA originated in replication, not translation. Indeed, there are many examples of tRNA-like molecules playing roles in reactions other than translation, including replication of various replicons. In this review, we have focused on functions of tRNA molecules (not tRNA-like structures) outside of their direct roles in translation as factors for a passive transportation of amino acids into a ribosome and deciphering triplets of nucleotides in codons of mRNA. Interestingly, it appears that such tRNA-dependent reactions are effective only when tRNA is uncharged. The most spectacular examples come from bacterial cells and include induction of the stringent control, regulation of transcription of some operons, and control of replication of ColE1-type plasmids. Recent studies indicated that tRNA (not only pre-tRNA, shown previously to be capable of self-excision of intron sequences) can be responsible for specific cleavage of another transcript, a ColE1 plasmid-encoded RNA I, which is involved in the regulation of plasmid DNA replication initiation. If this reaction is not restricted to RNA I but represents a more general phenomenon, one might suspect a potential role for uncharged tRNA molecules in regulation of various processes, whose efficiency depends on tRNA-cleavable RNAs. This kind of regulation would provide a possibility for a cell to respond to different nutrition conditions resulting in different levels of tRNA aminoacylation.
EN
This paper is the third part of the three part’s study presenting recommendations for the transcription of Arabic texts into Latin script in Slovak scientific – mainly linguistic works, based on the author’s own experience. When transcribing Arabic words into a different sign system for the purposes of such works, one often considers it useful that their transcribed forms be accompanied by the original ones. In most Arabic texts, orthographic and orthoepic signs are usually not written. The system of partial vocalization of Arabic texts suggested here (for the cases where it is needed or helpful) was mainly inspired by the author’s own experience with the problems stemming from a lack of such a system, which would (and hopefully will) enhance the work of an editor, linguist, as well as that of a teacher of Arabic concerning its written form.
EN
Regulation of T cell homeostasis is critical for maintaining normal immune function. An imbalance in T cell proliferation can result in disorders ranging from cancer and autoimmunity to immunodeficiencies. Full activation of T cells requires three sequential signals, where signal 3, which is delivered by multiple cytokines, regulates proliferation, differentiation, and survival/death. Signaling from cytokines through their receptors is primarily delivered by two molecular families, namely Janus tyrosine kinases (JAKs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs). Invaluable knowledge about JAKs and STATs has arisen from studies of mice made genetically deficient in these molecules, analyses of tumor models, and studies of expression patterns by proteomics/genomics, which all have begun to define the role of JAKs and STATs in survival versus apoptosis. These findings also have suggested ways in which JAKs and STATs may be manipulated for therapeutic intervention in lymphoid-derived diseases. This review seeks to focus on the role of JAK tyrosine kinases and STAT transcription factors in mediating the lymphocyte life cycle and how they might be manipulated for therapeutic applications.
EN
The highly sensitive in vivo methods for the detection of specific nucleic acid sequences are presented.These methods include target amplification, probe molucule amplification, cycling probe reaction and signal amplification methods.
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