Nowa wersja platformy, zawierająca wyłącznie zasoby pełnotekstowe, jest już dostępna.
Przejdź na https://bibliotekanauki.pl
Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników

Znaleziono wyników: 24

Liczba wyników na stronie
first rewind previous Strona / 2 next fast forward last
Wyniki wyszukiwania
Wyszukiwano:
w słowach kluczowych:  WAR
help Sortuj według:

help Ogranicz wyniki do:
first rewind previous Strona / 2 next fast forward last
1
Content available ARGUMENT SIŁY W RELACJACH MIĘDZYNARODOWYCH
100%
EN
International relationships are very complicated. There is a tension between the demands of duties of the states like protection of integrity, safety and peace (both internal and international), which require a lot of effectiveness, and demands of human dignity, justice and protection of human rights. In fact, this is a kind of conflict between pragmatism and ethics. Although there is no easy answer to that, one has to remember, that even when the war is inevitable, it becomes a setback. Even a just war is an unfair one.
EN
This article offers an analysis of the scenarios of outcome of the Russia-Ukraine war and their impact on European security. The basis of each scenario is a definition of the interests of both Russia and Ukraine in this war, a hypothetical description of the assumptions of their fulfilment (full success of one or the other country in the war or partial success) and, at the same time, the expected impact of the full or partial success of one or the other country, i.e., direct actors of the war, on the international order. The scenario analysis is based on an examination of the course of fighting in the period from the beginning of the Russian invasion on the 24th February (until the end of November) to identify the degree of probability of the fulfilment of each scenario.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
|
2023
|
tom 78
|
nr 1
40 – 58
EN
The effort to periodize the birth of just war theory in the western cultural space is characterized by a lack of consensus. An overview of academicians’ proposals to place the origins of just war theory on a timeline unveils the surprisingly vast span of the theory’s history. This paper takes an unconventional approach to the problem of defining the period of its creation by turning attention to the use of language. It conducts a semantic analysis of the concept of “theory”, demonstrating the various sometimes conflicting uses of the term within the field. It argues further that this greatly complicates discussions about determining the beginning of just war theory. The final part provides a general reflection on the essential characteristics and the very nature of just war theory as a field of study. The paper concludes that some of the specifics of the discipline make it virtually impossible to answer certain questions about the theory’s origins (as well as about the identification of an undisputable founding figure).
EN
Images of ‘paradise’ are average representations of e.g. different sights, beaches, etc. What happens, when a paradise has to incorporate ‘unpleasant’ subjects into its imagery? Shifting into the average consists of establishing and reproducing conventional highlights in relation to their shadows. In this vein, also anthropological production is average, its ‘paradise’ being chains of citations, and her shadow mass media practices. However, by continuing to cultivate its ethnographic presence, the discipline is moving on. The author explores shifts into, and moves out of the average representations on the case of Sri Lanka´s tourist.
EN
The authoress asks two questions. The first, is war really the best action of a polis how the introductory conversation of the 'Timaeus' (19b -c) suggests. The second, has been the Sokrates' desire to see his ideal polis in action fulfilled in the 'Timaeus-Critias' sequence. The approach to the problems seems to be found in the 'Laws', where these two questions are turned to this one: might war be the pattern for a lawgiver.
ARS
|
2011
|
tom 44
|
nr 1
9-14
EN
The article examines the perception of the relationship between war and art in Max Dvořák’s work, exemplified on papers dedicated to works of art by Francisco de Goya (“Desastres de la guerra”) and Albrecht Dürer (“Apocalypse”). The influential Central European art historian thought that the war experience had no causal effect on the spiritual life, but may have, to some extent as a kind of catalyst, amplified the already existing collective spiritual development.
7
Content available remote PHILIA AND NEIKOS: HUIZINGA’S “AUSEINANDERSETZUNG” WITH CARL SCHMITT
80%
EN
This article reconstructs the hidden dialogue between Johan Huizinga and Carl Schmitt that emerged throughout the 1930s. Huizinga phrased an early critique on Schmitt’s friend-enemy distinction. It appears that throughout the 1930s the Dutch historian had a thorough Auseinandersetzung with Schmitt, running from his In the shadow of tomorrow up to his Homo Ludens. Schmitt, in his turn, responded to Huizinga’s criticism, albeit somewhat implicitly, first, in a small text from 1938 and later in his book on Hamlet. In mapping the emergence of this “dialogue” it appears that their disagreement concerns the relationship between play and war. In particular, they have conflicting ideas on the state of exception, or, to use the German word on which the entire dialogue hinges: Ernstfall. To properly assess the possible relationship between play and war it is first necessary to reconstruct this dialogue and to consider the role of the state of exception within it.
EN
The author presents a wide background of the conflicts that have taken place in Afghanistan since the Soviet invasion up to the contemporary times. He describes the syndrome of the so called Afghan pot and its implications. Moreover, he reveals alternative attempts to resolve the conflict in a peaceful way as well as a military one. The aim of the article is to answer the question whether the international peace keeping forces can be effective in pacifying the main hotbed of the global terrorism, which radiates from Afghanistan to the whole world and is a real threat to peace and stability. It is absolutely crucial for the allied forces to draw conclusions from the previous failures. The author used a theoretical analysis of works selected from the bibliography.
EN
In my paper, I try to analyse the historical context of archival documents from the second half of 1943, where traces of the conspiracy theory that Uzbek workers were trading their food rations can be found. Accusations of trade and speculation in food drew heavily from the pre-revolutionary stereotypes and conspiracy theories from the period of the Revolution and the Civil War. Increasing theft and embezzlement in the trading network of food, textiles, and manufactured goods, the misuse of state and kolkhoz property, and conspicuous consumption were also reported from Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic in the early 1940s. Some premises for the conspiracy theory about the Uzbek propensity to speculate and conduct bazaar trade remained valid until the early 1980s, as seen in the so-called ‘cotton affair’, which triggered a series of rumours and images about Uzbek nepotism and mafia structures among the Soviet public. I argue that this rather represents traditional work preferences among Central Asian populations, where it possible to identify one of the sources of the role of a ‘provider of stereotypes’ played by the region as a periphery of the Russian/Soviet Empire.
EN
The goal of the paper is to present Margita Figuli´s novel Olovený vták/The Lead Bird by means of contemporary reading with regard to the historical and social context of its creation and its place in the literary history. This pacifist piece of prose criticizing participation of Slovakia in the war against Poland (1939) is well-known for its controversial publication in the pro-regime magazine Slovenské pohľady (1940) led by the editor Stanislav Mečiar and an alleged connection to the writer´s follow-up dismissal from Tatra banka in 1941 – 1942. The interpretation of the novel, which has only been the subject of fragmentary analysis to date, is concerned with the key points found in the text in terms of the structure and the spiritual dimension underrated so far. The text revolves around a character of a woman living in a tragic relation to the reality, which refers to the archetype of the mourning mother and the prototype of biblical Mary, alternatively ancient Niobe. The interpretation aims at the conclusion saying that the prose work can be included in the late line of expressionist prose. What helps cast light on the place of the book in the writer´s biography is her correspondence, publication activity, studies of literary scientists and knowledge of the historians analysing the period of the Slovak Republic (1939 – 1945).
EN
The article examines how the war narrative is displayed in modern European museum exhibitions, particularly in light of new museology and cultural memory trends in Germany and Poland. The study recognises that the contested nature of cultural and historical contexts influences the process of representing cultural memory in museum narratives. It combines the theoretical approach of museology with specific museum practices. Using case studies from the Bundeswehr Museum of Military History, Dresden, Germany; the Documentation Centre for Displacement, Expulsion, Reconciliation, Berlin, Germany; and the Museum of the Second World War, Gdansk, Poland, the author examines the impact of challenging issues centred on cultural memory of the war in museum exhibitions over recent decades. The study underlines the significance of innovative approaches to museum exhibitions that display the experience of war and contribute to social dialogue and sustainability.
EN
In the article the author attempts to outline three different concepts of critical thinking which are - in his opinion - strongly present in the contemporary philosophical, aesthetical and social-scientific reflection. He characterizes the first concept in a somewhat radical way as Act of War. The concept is characterized by adopting a radical form of perspectivism and perceiving society or culture as something fundamentally constituted by power relations. Therefore the working methods typical of this type of thinking can preferably be described by means of local and temporary strategies and tactics. He considers the second type of thinking as a positive and creative pre-definition of premises of historical-political discourse, which is in the backgrounds of the previous type of thinking. The author borrows Michel Foucault´s term "the aesthetics of existence" to denominate this type of critical thinking. The essential characteristic of this type of thinking is - in his view - perceiving criticism as a historical-practical test of frontiers, as an experimental tool which enables us to create ourselves. He also takes marginal notice of the third type of critical thinking which is defined as an analytical research of the conditions of truthfulness critical thinking which perceives itself as a guard of the frontier that cannot be crossed. In order to illustrate all three types of critical thinking, the author finds it most appropriate to use Michel Foucault´s reflections.
EN
The relative calm of the regime of Fu’ad Shihab (Fouad Chehab) began to wither away during the presidential term of his successor Sharil Eulw (Charles Eelou). In many respects the new regime was supposed to be a continuation of the former one. Political, social and economic reforms were carried out as specified under the regime of Fu’ad Shihab. More important, the role of the army and its Deuxieme Bureau in decision-making remained intact and a hard-liner Shihabist, Ilyas Sarkis, wielded great power as the head of the presidential bureau. The new regime provided a convincing argument that not even Shihabist policies were capable of ameliorating Lebanon’s inherent problems. These problems were structural and could not be solved by reforms. Furthermore, these reforms interfered with the confessional arrangements in the political system and were not easy to implement at a time of relative calm in the region. When major disturbances such as the June 1967 war, began to occur in the area, even these innocuous reforms became unacceptable to the traditional and sectarian forces in the country.
EN
One of the basic functions of myths is to explain reality, sanction the actions taken and give them a desirable meaning. Another function of mythical stories is to transmit the models of proper behaviour, ethical principles, norms and values personified by the hero that are important to a given community. Myths help people to understand their past and project their future. Such a myth has taken shape in the area of popular culture and consciousness of the Poles under the influence of the television serial and the book 'Four Men in a Tank', by Janusz Przymanowski. It has become an inseparable part of the discourse of collective memory about World War II and childhood spent in People's Poland. Its chief motif is joint work in the name of the common weal and a larger unity of ideas. The author shows many convergences between Janusz Przymanowski's book, folk heroic epic and a magic fairy-tale. They are all inscribed in a larger epic tradition of the fight against the German invader. The heroes of the novel and the film created on its basis are a synthesis of the types of folk heroism, an archetype present in many soldiers' memoirs, tales and stories.
EN
The Internet as a source of information, a means of communication, a platform for self-presentation is every year becoming more and more part of a person's everyday life. This process is most active and relevant for young people, especially students. It is this social group that not only adapts to new conditions more easily than others, but also promotes them among other layers of the population. The epidemic of COVID-19, and then the war in Ukraine, made the Internet an indispensable element of the daily life of users all over the world, and in our country in particular. There is a lack of sociological research on the use of the Internet by students as a social group and in terms of the combination of Internet awareness and Internet practices of users in Ukraine, so the findings once again emphasizes its relevance. The main tasks that the authors set themselves were to find out for what purpose Ukrainian students use the network and how much time they spend there. The results of the study showed that according to the results of the comparison of the respondents' stories about their own Internet practices and the content analysis data of their screenshots, the declarations of 16 of the 24 interviewed respondents were not confirmed. The article presents the empirical results of a sociological study aimed at identifying the peculiarities of the dynamics of the use of the Internet by Ukrainian students in everyday life, in particular, in the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic and related quarantine restrictions. The main practices of the Internet among students were studied and analysed, and the interpretation of the obtained results was described in the article.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
|
2017
|
tom 72
|
nr 7
505 – 514
EN
The paper focuses on the fact that, in recent political philosophy, we have witnessed a critical overturning of an earlier philosophical idealism that invoked friendship as the destination of the political and, in its place, of what the author will call a non-philosophical understanding that has determined a certain war (pólemos), and the “friend-enemy” relation, as the permanent ground from which any critical or strategic understanding of the political must now depart. This tendency can most clearly be illustrated by Jacques Derrida’s commentaries on the German jurist Karl Schmitt and the German philosopher Martin Heidegger. In this article, the author will address Derrida’s overt polemic and/or Auseinandersetzung with these two thinkers in his later writings. First, she will discuss his polemic with Schmitt from The Politics of Friendship (1990), and will conclude with some preliminary remarks on the culmination of this polemic in his reflections on Heidegger from the same period.
EN
The article briefly deals with the beginning and history of the traditional Christian doctrine of 'a just war'. Thereby it builds up a groundwork for the reflection of contemporary affirmations in the official Catholic Church documents which further develop this doctrine. It discusses the justification of war, particularly with respect to a potential threat of a nuclear conflict and an immediate threat to humanity of worldwide terrorism. It examines possible and justifiable means needed for better understanding and the preservation of peaceful co-existence in Christian ethical thinking.
EN
The article has to do with the issue of war and violence in the thought of Emmanuel Levinas. According to him war is not only a traumatic historical event, but also a peculiar ontological state resulting from the peculiar way of thinking of Europeans. He considers how war is connected with the notions of whole, identity, and objectivity, why history is at fault, and why the only solution is eschatology, which challenges individuals and calls them to responsibility. The relationship between war and morality is at the center of the thought of Levinas. He sensitizes the reader to the fact that war is always a latent possibility, a constant hidden threat, always unexpected. War, as well as violence and force broadly understood, always change the world order, and with it accepted principles, rules, and values. It is an event that seeks to eliminate otherness, that tends to a uniform whole by leveling differences. Pluralism must give way to the totalizing aspirations of war.
EN
The paper deals with the characteristics, modalities and conceptual ground of Foucualt’s appreciation of historical analysis. In the first part it focuses on the results yielded by the archaeological study of discursive practices. The analysis of its problematic points is followed by the explanation of Foucault’s method called genealogy. Among the results this method has brought the concepts of bio-politics and bio-power are underlined. The last part of the study is devoted to Foucault’s reception of the famous Clausewitz’s aphorism concerning the relationship between war and policy.
EN
The text analyses relations between the Slovak state and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia immediately before the German invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, and the subsequent establishment of relations between Slovakia and the Independent State of Croatia. On the basis of primary sources, the contemporary press and relevant literature, it explains how far the Slovak state relied on cooperation with Yugoslavia and on Yugoslav support and how the Yugoslav leaders viewed Slovakia. It also presents the foundations on which Slovakia began to build relations with the Independent State of Croatia from April 1941, and the perspectives or possibilities for these relations in the further course of the war.
first rewind previous Strona / 2 next fast forward last
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.