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EN
Background: The aim of the paper was to build evaluation criteria of selected motor coordination abilities, useful in optimization of training in young gymnast girls, at the initial stage of sport training.Material/Methods: 18 gymnast girls aged 7-9 years old from the Sports School in Olsztyn took part in this study. In order to evaluate selected motor coordination abilities, three tests were used. The first test was taken on dynamometric platform on which subjects performed the Ellipsis test four times. This test is based on controlling the position of the centre of body mass using a dynamometric platform. The tested person had to keep the cursor (the centre of body mass) at the point moving along a prefect ellipsis on the screen. After two rehearsals gymnasts were turned round ten times in a rotation chair. In the second test, static balance was assessed by the Flamingo balance test (Eurofit). In the third test the level of global coordination was measured.Results: A correlation analysis of the collected data showed statistically significant correlation between individual indices. On the basis of objective quantitative and qualitative information obtained in this study, norms useful in assessment of the examined abilities were drawn up. A selection of valid and reliable indicators helpful in objective evaluation of motor coordination abilities in gymnast girls at the initial stage of sport training was made.Conclusions: Drawn up norms of motor coordination abilities evaluation create the basics for individualization of training in young gymnast girls at the initial stage of sport training.
EN
Purpose. The aims of this study were, first, to investigate visual spotting and, second, to explore the functional relationships between movement structure and gaze behavior in gymnasts as they perform preparatory giant swings (traditional and scooped technique) and dismounts (single straight and double tucked salto) with increasing difficulty on the high bar. It was predicted that visual spotting would occur in all experimental tasks. Methods. Relationships between gaze behavior and movement kinematics were explored to provide a clearer picture of how gaze is interconnected with the kinematics of dismounts on the high bar. For this purpose, kinematic parameters were measured with an optical movement-analysis system while gaze behavior was measured by using a portable and wireless eye-tracking system. Results. The measurement of gaze behavior revealed that gymnasts use visual spotting in all three tasks showing fixations throughout the whole movement. Each task was furthermore characterized by a sequence of visual fixations that was thought to serve specific movement goals. In particular, fixations during the downswing phase of the preparatory giant swings were significantly correlated with the movement phases when beginning the hip extension and flexion in the “kick through” as well as with the athlete’s distance of flight during the dismounts. Conclusions. The findings suggest that gymnasts can use visual spotting during preparatory giant swings and dismounts on the high bar and that there are functional relationships between different fixations and specific movement goals.
EN
Background: Physical culture covers a number of forms of physical activity, with sport being the most specialized form of participation. Rapid development of sport in recent years has contributed not only to the rise in the level of competitive sport but it also made the processes of social transitions to be reflected on a wider scale. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the views on professional sports from two generations of women who have practiced gymnastics. The main focus was on the presentation of gymnastics in the perspective of other disciplines and its place in everyday life of the studied subjects.Material/Methods: The study was carried out among a group of 482 athletes of two generations: gymnasts currently involved in sport and the former ones. Sociological research was the basic research method. A questionnaire survey and an interview questionnaire were the used research tools. The material was also subjected to statistical elaboration, using V-Cramer coefficient, which confirms statistically significant relationships.Results: The results of the study revealed that during sport careers both the idea of professional sport activity and the importance of individual values of sport undergo considerable transformations at different phases of gymnasts' sport careers, which is proved by the differences in opinions between both the studied generations.Conclusions: Attitudes of the two generations of gymnasts towards competitive sport, despite a number of similarities, also show some intergenerational disproportions.
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Content available remote Benefits of Bandwidth Feedback in Learning a Complex Gymnastic Skill
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EN
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two different frequencies of feedback during the process of learning a complex gymnastic skill, the round-off salto backward tucked. Thirty male acrobats participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups: B - bandwidth feedback (n=15) or C - 100% feedback (n=15). Group B was provided with error information regarding the key elements of movement techniques only (bandwidth feedback). Our research demonstrates the advantage of augmented feedback information related to errors in the key elements. Information about errors in the key elements during learning a complex gymnastic skill prevents the gymnast from becoming overwhelmed, which promotes better motor control. These results provide support for the generalisation of bandwidth feedback principles to a complex task. Our research shows that the guidance hypothesis can also be tested in practical settings for a complex movement task.
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EN
The aim of this study was based on the kinematic parameters, extracted at different stages of performing a forward handspring to determine the interconnection of methodological procedures of learning with the final structure of the movement. The respondent is an active competitor with years of experience, elite athlete, many times Croatian champion, and competitor at European, World Championships and the Olympics. The team composed of six gymnastic experts, chose one of the best performances by twelve methodological procedures and the best performance (of six) twoleg forward handsprings basing their choice on a detailed review of recorded material. Assessment of quality of performance was done according to the defined rules prescribed by the regulations (Code of Points). The forward handspring technique consists of four phases based on which 45 space and time kinematic parameters were selected (30 parameters in the phase of hand contact and push-off, 7 in the flight phase, and 8 parameters in the landing phase). By extraction of space and time parameters, there was a differentiation of certain methodological procedures that are the best for learning forward handspring in each phase of its performance. This research indicates that these methodological procedures mostly coincide in space kinematic parameters by which the technique of a forward handspring is described.
7
Content available remote Exploratory Investigation of Impact Loads During the Forward Handspring Vault
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EN
The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic and kinetic differences in low and high intensity hand support impact loads during a forward handspring vault. A high-speed video camera (500 Hz) and two portable force platforms (500 Hz) were installed on the surface of the vault table. Two-dimensional analyses were conducted on 24 forward handspring vaults performed by 12 senior level, junior Olympic program female gymnasts (16.9 ±1.4 yr; body height 1.60 ±0.1 m; body mass 56.7 ±7.8 kg). Load intensities at impact with the vault table were classified as low (peak force < 0.8 × body weight) and high (peak force > 0.8 × body weight). These vaults were compared via crucial kinetic and kinematic variables using independent t-tests and Pearson correlations. Statistically significant (p < 0.001) differences were observed in peak force (t(24) = 4.75, ES = 3.37) and time to peak force (t(24) = 2.07, ES = 1.56). Statistically significant relationships between the loading rate and time to peak force were observed for high intensity loads. Peak force, time to peak force, and a shoulder angle at impact were identified as primary variables potentially involved in the determination of large repetitive loading rates on the forward handspring vault.
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Content available remote Body overloading in the giant circle on rings
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EN
The results of kinematics measurements of the performance of a forward giant on rings along with the recorded stretching force are presented. The external energy and power during exercise were computed. The results indicate the significance of elastic properties of the athletes' body during extremal overloading, giving insight into the changes of potential, kinetic and elastic energies which are fundamental for the proper performance.
EN
The purpose of this study was to establish a multi-segment dynamic model in the LifeMOD to examine kinematics of the center of mass and foot, and muscle forces of selected upper extremity muslces during a double-leg circle (DLC) movement on pommel horse in gymnastics and compared with three-dimensional kinematics of the movement and surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of the muscles. The DLC movement of one elite male gymnast was collected. The three-dimensional (3D) data was imported in the Lifemod to create a full-body human model. A 16-Channel surface electromyography system was used to collect sEMG signals of middle deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, latissimusdorsi, and pectoralis major. The 3D center of mass and foot displacement showed a good match with the computer simulated results. The muscle force estimations from the model during the four DLC phases were also generally supported by the integrated sEMG results, suggesting that the model was valid. A potential application of this model is to help identify shortcomings of athletes and help establish appropriate training plans errors in the DLC technique during training.
PL
The article shows the role of physical education in the Piarist priests’ gymnasium in Rakowice near Kraków in 1909-39, a period when sport entered the school curriculum on a permanent basis. In the Interwar period, the order was able to open more schools in Lida, Szczuczyn Nowogródzki, and Lubieszów. The school in Rakowice was modern and comfortable and enjoyed a growing reputation among wealthy Polish society. The Rakowice school took great care of the physical development of young people. The article uses source materials describing the physical education of this institution. In this school, sport was considered to be an important educational factor, and the monks also saw it as an element of improving health, hygiene and finally, civic education. Polish society and the Polish state needed educated and healthy youth. However, it should be noted that this school was an elite, paid school, attended by children from wealthy families who were more aware of the importance of sport. This also contributed to the fact that the gymnasium had great facilities for practising sports, which many excellent secondary schools of that period could envy.
EN
Background: The purpose of the study was to evaluate motor skills of children participating and not participating in corrective gymnastics activities. It has been assumed that children participating in additional physical activities conducted in nursery school have better motor skills than those staying out of this type of activities. Material/Methods: Tests were carried out in two stages. For quantitative research a questionnaire was conducted among headmasters of nursery schools in Gdansk. The qualitative and quantitative research involved: observation, document analysis, tests of educational performance verifying the level of motor skills. A total of 286 five- and six-year-old children were recruited from different preschools (eight preschools and three primary school preschool programs in Gdansk). Results: Comparing groups of preschoolers participating and not participating in the activities of corrective gymnastics showed that among five-year-olds attending corrective gymnastics greater skills were noticed only in two of the seven tests: I – walking on a balance bench and II – crawling on an inclined balance bench. Among six-year-olds only in one test: VI – throwing a ball against the wall and catching it. Conclusions: Corrective gymnastics viewed as additional physical activity exercise in preschools does not contribute to the development of new motor skills of five- and six-year-olds.
PL
Cel badań. Celem badań było ukazanie założeń programowych Niemieckiego Związku Gimnas­tycznego w Polsce (Deutsche Turnerschaft in Polen) w latach 1921–1939 na podstawie kwerendy materiałów archiwalnych, prasy turnerskiej oraz literatury przedmiotu polskiej i niemieckiej. Materiał i metody. Materiał badawczy stanowiły źródła zdeponowane w archiwach niemieckich i polskich oraz prasa turnerska z okresu międzywojennego (zwłaszcza organ DTP ,,Mitt­eilungen der Deutschen Turnerschaft in Polen”). W przeprowadzonych badaniach została wykorzystana metoda analizy źródeł historycznych, indukcji, dedukcji, syntezy, a także metoda porównawcza. Wyniki. Niemiecki Związek Gimnastyczny w Polsce działał na terenie II Rzeczypospolitej w latach 1921–1939. Była to największa organizacja zajmująca się kulturą fizyczną wśród ludności niemieckiej w Polsce, licząca ponad 6 tys. członków. Związek czerpał z ponad 100-letniej tradycji niemieckiego turnerstwa, zapoczątkowanego przez Fryderyka L. Jahna. Celem działalności było podtrzymanie tradycji patriotycznych, tożsamości narodowej oraz ścisła współpraca z Niemieckim Związkiem Gimnastycznym (Deutsche Turnerschaft). W okresie Republiki Wei­marskiej towarzystwa gimnastyczne, zgodnie z profilem polityki rządowej, stały się bardziej ruchem gimnastyczno-nacjonalistycznym, co wynikało z niekorzystnych dla Niemiec postanowień traktatu wersalskiego. Wraz z dojściem Adolfa Hitlera do władzy niemieckie turnerstwo stało się ważną dziedziną działalności państwa na trzech podstawowych płaszczyznach: propagandy nordyckiej wyższości rasowej, sterowania nastrojami społeczeństw oraz przygotowania fizycznego Niemców, zwłaszcza młodzieży, do szeroko pojętej służby krajowi. Wnioski. Niemiecki Związek Gimnastyczny w Polsce działał w latach 1921–1939 na bazie wzorców Republiki Weimarskiej i III Rzeszy. Ważną rolę w realizacji programu DTP odgrywała wydawana w Polsce i Niemczech prasa turnerska.
EN
Background. The purpose of the research was to present the program assumptions of the German Gymnastics Association in Poland in years 1921–1939 on the basis of the enquiry of archive materials, gymnastics newspapers, and German and Polish literature. Material and methods. Research materials included sources from the German and Polish archives, and gymnastics press from the interwar period. The methods of historical sources analysis, induction, deduction, synthesis, and comparison were applied. Results. The German Gymnastics Association in Poland was active in the Second Polish Republic in years 1921–1939. It was the biggest organization of physical culture among Germans in Poland, gathering over 6000 members, with over 100-year tradition, initiated by Friedrich L. Jahn. The purpose of the Association was to maintain patriotic traditions and the national identity, as well as to cooperate with the German Gymnastics Association. In the period of the Weimar Republic, gymnastic societies, in accordance with the government policy, became more a nationalist movement, which resulted from the decisions of the Treaty of Versailles unfavourable for Germany. In the Nazi Germany, the German gymnastic movement became an important field of state activity on three basic levels: propaganda of Nordic racial superiority, control of the mood of societies, and physical preparation of Germans to serve the state. Conclusions. The German Gymnastics Association in Poland was active in years 1921–1939, following the examples from the Weimar Republic and the Nazi Germany. The Polish and German gymnastics press played a considerable role in implementing the Association program.
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Content available remote The Value of Education and Work in the Representatives of Gymnasts' Opinion
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EN
Background: Sports professional activity has been an unusually absorbing domain of human life. This is particularly noticeable in so-called sports of early specialization, including gymnastics. The specialization in gymnastics occurs at the moment of girls' acquisition of knowledge and preparation for future professional careers. Therefore, the authors decided to look further into the process of combining school and sports duties and to reveal possible conflicts.Material/Methods: Research material was a group of 482 athletes who are professionally involved in three gymnastics disciplines: artistic gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics and acrobatic gymnastics in Polish clubs.Results: An analysis of the results revealed that considerable importance is attached to the value of knowledge in both studied populations. Furthermore, the obtained empirical data contradict the popular belief that taking up professional sports activity puts obstacles in the way of combining school and sports duties and, in consequence, interferes with receiving an education.Conclusions: Both studied populations are characterized by high recognition for the values of knowledge, education and work.
EN
In many sports disciplines, competitors perform activities that are not directly evaluated by referees, and whose time, length, or height are not directly measured, but which determine good sports results. In the case of trampolining, such activities involve the jumps that precede the program during competitions. Those preparatory jumps help the competitor perfom jumps for which he can receive the best notes. By undertaking research on the importance of preparatory activities in trampoline jumps, the authors decided to discover the interdependence between the number of preparatory jumps and the quality of the performance. The aim of the article was to experimentally indicate the optimal number of performed jumps before starting the program. The authors used an experiment involving 4 elite competitors in trampolining: two juniors had the first sports class and two had the master class. Having done 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 preparatory jumps, the competitors performed a program consisting of 5 elements. Two qualified referees, using a measuring device, evaluated the performed program. It turned out that in 3 cases the best jumps were performed after 8 preparatory jumps, and in 10 cases, after one jump. Fewer than 8 and more than 10 jumps lead to worsening the quality of performance. This conclusion is a valuable practical tip for coaches.
PL
W wielu dyscyplinach sportowych zawodnik wykonuje takie czynności, które nie podlegają bezpośredniej ocenie sędziów lub nie podlegają bezpośredniemu pomiarowi czasu, odległości, wysokości, ale warunkują one uzyskanie wysokiego wyniku sportowego. Takimi czynnościami w skokach na trampolinie są skoki, które poprzedzają wykonanie programu podczas zawodów. Ich celem jest nabranie przez skoczka odpowiedniej wysokości, tak aby mógł on uzyskać jak najwyższą ocenę za wykonanie programu. Podejmując się badań nad znaczeniem czynności przygotowawczych w skokach na trampolinie autorzy postanowili znaleźć zależności pomiędzy liczbą wyskoków przygotowawczych a jakością wykonania programu w skokach na trampolinie. Celem pracy było eksperymentalne wyznaczenie optymalnej liczby wyskoków wykonywanych przed rozpoczęciem układu w skokach na trampolinie. Posłużono się metodą eksperymentu, któremu poddano czterech zawodników elity w skokach na trampolinie: dwóch juniorów reprezentujących klasę I i dwóch posiadających klasę mistrzowską. Zawodnicy ci wykonali program składający się z 5 elementów po 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 i 16 skokach przygotowawczych. Dwóch kwalifikowanych sędziów wspieranych przez aparaturę pomiarową dokonało oceny wykonania tych programów. Okazało się, że najlepsze oceny uzyskiwano po 8 skokach przygotowawczych w 3 przepadkach, a po 10 skokach w jednym przypadku. Niższa liczba skoków przygotowawczych niż 8 i wyższa niż 10 zawsze prowadziły do obniżenia jakości wykonania programu, co stanowi cenny wniosek praktyczny dla trenerów.
EN
To prevent the osteoporosis by applying physiotherapy is important for avoiding fractures. Cryotherapy is an established method of physiotherapy; and is usually followed by relaxing gymnastics. The aim of the study was to assess the possible influence of whole body cryotherapy followed by relaxing gymnastics on bone turnover and muscular function in elderly women. The study was carried out on 62 elderly women (mean age 69.2 ± 4.5 yr). None had a past history of osteoporotic fracture. Osteoporosis was diagnosed in 14 of them, osteopenia in another 30, and normal BMD was shown in the remaining 18. The control group were 20 young healthy women. The subjects were exposed to whole body cryotherapy for 6 weeks, 5 times weekly (3 minutes session each time) in a cryochambre of a temperature between -110 and -150°C. Then, they performed relaxing gymnastics for 45 minutes. Serum osteocalcin (OC) and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) were measured, and a functional assessment of back flexors and extensors by the isokinetic method was carried out at the beginning and at the end of the study. We observed a statistically significant decrease of OC (p < 0.05) and an increase of ICTP (p < 0.05) in serum in the entire group of elderly women following the physiotherapy course. Bone turnover markers in the control group increased, but only statistically significant changes were in ICTP (p < 0.05). The functional muscle analysis revealed positive influence of physiotherapy for back flexors and extensors activity (p < 0.05). In conclusion, cryotherapy followed by relaxing gymnastics influences the bone turnover in elderly women. On the other hand, this form of physiotherapy induced positive changes in muscle function, in terms of back flexors and extensors activity.
PL
Zapobieganie osteoporozie poprzez zabiegi fizjoterapeutyczne jest ważnym elementem chroniącym przed złamaniami. Krioterapia jest uznaną metodą terapeutyczną i najczęściej łączona jest z gimnastyką rozluźniającą. Celem tej pracy jest ocena wpływu krioterapii połączonej z gimnastyką na przebudowę kości i siłę mięśniową u starszych kobiet. Badania przeprowadzono na 62 starszych kobietach (średnia wieku 69,2 ± 4.5 lat) U żadnej osoby nie było złamań z powodu osteoporozy. Osteoporozę zdiagnozowano u 14 osób, osteopenię u 3 0, normalne wartości BMD odnotowano u pozostałych 18. Grupę kontrolną stanowiło 20 młodych zdrowych kobiet. Pacjentki poddano krioterapii przez 6 tygodni, 5 razy w tygodniu (sesje 3-minutowe) w kriokomorze o temperaturze od -110 do -150 °C. Następnie pacjentki gimnastykowały się przez 45 minut. Wykonano badania poziomu osteokalcyny (OC) i C-końcowego usieciowanego telopeptydu łańcucha alfa kolagenu typu I (ICTP) w surowicy krwi. Oceniano funkcje zginaczy i prostowników na początku i na końcu terapii metodą izokinetyczną. Zaobserwowano statystycznie znamienny spadek OC (p < 0,05) i wzrost ICTP (p < 0,05) w całej grupie starszych pacjentek. W grupie kontrolnej poziom markerów przemiany kostnej również wzrósł, ale statystycznie znamienne zmiany zaobserwowano jedynie w poziomie ICTP (p < 0,05). Odnotowano również znamienny statystycznie wpływ nafunkcję zginaczy i prostowników (p < 0,05). Stwierdzono, że krioterapia z następową gimnastyką wpływa na przemianę kostną u starszych kobiet, a jeszcze bardziej na funkcję mięśni.
PL
Na przełomie XIX i XX w. popularyzowano uprawianie sportu oraz gimnastykę na świeżym powietrzu, w szczególności wśród dzieci i młodzieży. Powstawały wówczas liczne kluby, towarzystwa zajmujące się wszelakimi dyscyplinami sportu. W miastach wyznaczano części ogrodów i skwery na tworzenie tam placów zabaw dla dzieci oraz ogródków dziecięcych. Również w Warszawie z inicjatywy członków Towarzystwa Higienicznego postanowiono utworzyć ogródek dziecięcy. W 1899 r. uruchomiono zabawy w ogródku dziecięcym, który nazwano na cześć darczyńcy ogrodami W.E. Rau. Jeszcze tego samego roku musiano jednak zaprzestać prac ze względu na niedopełnienie wymogów formalnych. W tym czasie członkowie komisji gier i zabaw działającej przy Towarzystwie Higienicznym zostali oddelegowani za granicę, aby przyjrzeć się tamtejszym rozwiązaniom dotyczącym gier i zabaw zbiorowych na świeżym powietrzu.
EN
At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, sports and outdoor gymnastics were popularized, especially among children and youth. Numerous clubs and societies dealing with all kinds of sport were established then. In the cities, parts of gardens and squares were designated for creating playgrounds for children and establishing children’s gardens. Also in Warsaw, it was decided to create a children’s garden through the members of the Hygienic Society. In 1899, games began in the children’s garden, which was named after W.E. Rau’s gardens in honor of the donor. However, they had to be discontinued the same year because of failure to comply with formal requirements. During this time, members of the Games and Play Committee operating at the Hygienic Society were delegated abroad to look at the local solution for outdoor games and collective games.
EN
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare and analyse of relationships between stability indices registered in two positions: standing and handstand in athletes practicing gymnastics at various levels of advancement. Methods: The study included 46 athletes practicing gymnastics. The research tool was posturograph CQ-Stab 2P. Results: In both standing position and handstand in the seniors there were statistically significantly lower values of such indicators as: sway area delimited by the center of pressure ( p = 0.004, p = 0.014), mean amplitude of COP ( p = 0.021, p = 0.017), mean displacement of the center of feet/hands pressure in medio-lateral direction ( p = 0.011, p = 0.003) and maximal displacement of the center of feet/hands pressure in mediolateral direction ( p = 0.036, p = 0.036). In the standing position, seniors also had statistically significantly lower values of the statokinesiogram path length, both total ( p = 0.000) as well as in anteroposterior ( p = 0.001) and mediolateral ( p = 0.002) directions. In the seniors group there were statistically significant correlations between variables obtained in standing position and handstand. Conclusions: The level of sport advancement significantly differentiates the stability of a body in standing position and handstand. The seniors practicing gymnastics, compared to juniors, are characterized by a better ability to control the position of the body in both positions. The lack of relationships between stability indices registered in standing and handstand in juniors suggests that the analysis of the values of stability indices obtained in a standing position does not provide the possibility of predicting the ability to maintain balance in the handstand during the recruitment of candidates for gymnastics.
PL
Street workout to nowoczesna nazwa kalisteniki, a więc formy aktywności fizycznej, bazującej na ćwiczeniach wykorzystujących masę własnego ciała. Chodzi np. o pompki, przysiady, brzuszki czy podciągnięcia. Do tych czynności nie jest potrzebny drogi i specjalistyczny sprzęt.
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