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1
Content available remote The Value of Education and Work in the Representatives of Gymnasts' Opinion
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EN
Background: Sports professional activity has been an unusually absorbing domain of human life. This is particularly noticeable in so-called sports of early specialization, including gymnastics. The specialization in gymnastics occurs at the moment of girls' acquisition of knowledge and preparation for future professional careers. Therefore, the authors decided to look further into the process of combining school and sports duties and to reveal possible conflicts.Material/Methods: Research material was a group of 482 athletes who are professionally involved in three gymnastics disciplines: artistic gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics and acrobatic gymnastics in Polish clubs.Results: An analysis of the results revealed that considerable importance is attached to the value of knowledge in both studied populations. Furthermore, the obtained empirical data contradict the popular belief that taking up professional sports activity puts obstacles in the way of combining school and sports duties and, in consequence, interferes with receiving an education.Conclusions: Both studied populations are characterized by high recognition for the values of knowledge, education and work.
EN
Background: The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between individual profiles of leading traits of special fitness with athletes' technical preparation in the gymnastic vault event at the directed stage of training.Material/Methods: The study involved 60 gymnasts aged 11-13 practising artistic gymnastics at the stage of directed training.The study was carried out in laboratory, training and sports competition conditions in years 2003 - 2007.Results: An analysis of results enabled determining the most informative indices having a significant relation with the sports results in gymnastic vault. Quantitative criteria of special fitness and technical preparation in six-month macrocycles of the training process have been worked out. Individual profiles of special fitness with indication of their changeable character in the three-year period of the study have been presented.Conclusions: The research led to the following conclusions: - an objective quantitative assessment creates a possibility to optimise the training process of the examined competitors through an appropriate selection of training means and methods; - working out the structure of athletes' special preparation with consideration for the curricular requirements in subsequent six-month macrocycles will enable optimising the training process directed not only at the all-round events but also at the possibilities to specialise in selected gymnastic events; - the above study can also stimulate a further development of the theory and methodology of training in artistic gymnastics.
EN
In artistic gymnastic alteration of all component of coordination capacities may related to fatigue. So the resistance to fatigue is a specific endurance component, which has direct relation to the techniques of gymnastic exercises. We supposed that changes of motor actions precise in the process of fatigue development during training sessions might presumably have a negative impact on the quality of performing complex gymnastic elements and combinations and set the goal to determine the significance level of aerobic capacity for special endurance. Twelve young skilled gymnasts aged 15-18 years measured the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max). During the training sessions specially designed tests of specific endurance were carried out, heart rate (HR) was measured and the quality of the presentation of the combinations was evaluated (by the sum of the judges' ratings of all the elements). The interrelation between VO2 max, HR in progress of gymnastic combinations and the quality of their performance were analyzed. Results showed that a higher aerobic capacity contributes to a relatively lower HR when performing intense gymnastic combinations and a slower development. Iof “coordination fatigue” t may be of special importance for young athletes at the stage of advanced specialization when a great volume of complex combinations is learned and thus, high volume of training loads is performed. According to obtained data use of the proposed endurance tests is of great importance for control of maintenance of aerobic capacities by young athletes. Account of the factors of “coordination fatigue” development, related to aerobic capacities, may be of special importance for young gymnasts at the stage of advanced specialization when a great volume of complex combinations is learned and thus, high volume of training loads is performed.
EN
Background: Physical culture covers a number of forms of physical activity, with sport being the most specialized form of participation. Rapid development of sport in recent years has contributed not only to the rise in the level of competitive sport but it also made the processes of social transitions to be reflected on a wider scale. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the views on professional sports from two generations of women who have practiced gymnastics. The main focus was on the presentation of gymnastics in the perspective of other disciplines and its place in everyday life of the studied subjects.Material/Methods: The study was carried out among a group of 482 athletes of two generations: gymnasts currently involved in sport and the former ones. Sociological research was the basic research method. A questionnaire survey and an interview questionnaire were the used research tools. The material was also subjected to statistical elaboration, using V-Cramer coefficient, which confirms statistically significant relationships.Results: The results of the study revealed that during sport careers both the idea of professional sport activity and the importance of individual values of sport undergo considerable transformations at different phases of gymnasts' sport careers, which is proved by the differences in opinions between both the studied generations.Conclusions: Attitudes of the two generations of gymnasts towards competitive sport, despite a number of similarities, also show some intergenerational disproportions.
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Content available remote Strength and aerobic training in overweight females in Gdansk, Poland
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EN
W e compared the effects of 16-week-training on rest metabolic rate, aerobic power, and body fat, and the post-exercise effects upon rest oxygen uptake and respiratory exchange ratio in overweight middle-aged females. Twenty nine overweight women (BMI 29.9 ± 1.2 kg*m-²) participated in training (3 days a week). The subjects were divided onto groups of aerobic (AT) and strength (ST) training. The results showed that the total body mass decrease and VO2 max increase did not differ in both groups. Decrease in waist circumference after 16 weeks was higher in the ST group. In the ST group fat-free mass increased during the first 8 weeks. Rest metabolic rate was increased significantly at 16th week compared to initial value in ST group only. Significant increase in post-exercise resting VO2 and respiratory exchange ratio at 12 and 36 h was observed after the strength training session only. Increase in rest metabolic rate and post-exercise rest energy expenditure occurred after strength training but not after aerobic training despite the similar increase in aerobic power. The effect of 8-16 weeks of strength training on body mass decrease was higher in comparison to aerobic training.
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Content available remote Association of theACTN3R577X Polymorphism in Polish Power-Orientated Athletes
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EN
Alpha-actinins are an ancient family of actin-binding proteins that play structural and regulatory roles in cytoskeletal organization. In skeletal muscle, α-actinin-3 protein is an important structural component of the Z disc, where it anchors actin thin filaments, helping to maintain the myofibrillar array. A common nonsense polymorphism in codon 577 of the ACTN3 gene (R577X) results in α-actinin-3 deficiency in XX homozygotes. Based on knowledge about the role of ACTN3 R557X polymorphism in skeletal muscle function, we postulated that the genetic polymorphism of ACTN3 could also improve sprint and power ability.We compared genotypic and allelic frequencies of the ACTN3 R557X polymorphism in two groups of men of the same Caucasian descent: 158 power-orientated athletes and 254 volunteers not involved in competitive sport.The genotype distribution in the group of power-oriented athletes showed significant differences (P=0.008) compared to controls. However, among the investigated subgroups of athletes, only the difference of ACTN3 R577X genotype between sprinters and controls reached statistical significance (P=0.041). The frequencies of the ACTN3 577X allele (30.69% vs. 40.35%; P=0.005) were significantly different in all athletes compared to controls. Our results support the hypothesis that the ACTN3 577XX allele may have some beneficial effect on sprintpower performance, because the ACTN3 XX genotype is significantly reduced in Polish power-oriented athletes compared to controls.This finding seems to be in agreement with previously reported case-control studies. However, ACTN3 polymorphism as a genetic marker for sport talent identification should be interpreted with great caution.
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