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1
Content available remote MEDIÁLNA GRAMOTNOSŤ – PREDPOKLAD PRE ŠÍRENIE KULTÚRNYCH TRADÍCIÍ
100%
Konštantínove listy
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2013
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tom 6
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nr 6
161 – 167
EN
The paper focuses on media literacy as a prerequisite for the dissemination of cultural traditions. Cultural traditions are part of national culture which has been created as well as maintained and passed from generation to generation. For this purpose, various institutions (theatres, cinemas, museums, galleries etc.) and the media such as television, radio, film, press, the Internet, audio media, electronic materials, video, advertising (billboards, posters, leaflets, direct marketing), etc. can be used.
EN
The new post-modern theory of mass media as elaborated by Jean Baudrillard makes the provocative claim that the media representation of social reality is the very mode of its disappearance. In this essay, using Baudrillard's theory, the author analyses the production of news on the war in Bosnia by American TV networks and argues for a local rather than global representation of social reality. While the edited words and images on the television screen produce fake realities, there are specific practical conditions behind their production that can be described and analysed as a locally produced social reality. To prove this point, the author draws on two sets of data. The first contains two news reports by ‘ABC News' (American Broadcasting Corporation) about the war in Bosnia, each of which uses the same image of a sniper: in the first report, he is identified as a Bosnian Muslim, in the second, as a Bosnian Serb. The fact that the same image may signify two mutually exclusive identities is an example of fake news created by means of specific editing practices. The second set of data consists of a television news broadcast in which the author appears as a translator for a Bosnian woman. The author compares the edited news footage with the event as he actually experienced it and argues that the falsification of this ‘news' occurred, with his complicity, in response to a particular contingency of the moment.
EN
The article concerns quality evaluation of documents in historical, comparative, and typological perspectives. The author revealed that documents (not only written ones) have been evaluated from the very beginning of a script culture. Nowadays such evaluation is needed in many disciplines and fields, like media and journalism, penal prosecution agencies, museums, and science. However, new media generated significant changes in evaluating processes. The opposition between an original and a copy has vanished, website personalization undermined a typographic system as a stable document’s feature. The article includes also a proposed form of document evaluation.
EN
The authoress' aim is to describe and interpret the connection between media literacy and critical pedagogy which appear in the works of Michel Foucault, Pierre Bourdieu and Henry Giroux. Much attention is paid to issues, such as symbolic and iconic violence, critical analysis, empowerment, cultural reproduction, the main interests of media literacy, and the problem of using popular culture and media study in the pedagogical process. She considers the special status of media images and the problem of the degree to which they correspond with reality, the process of decoding cultural texts and the role of audiovisual competence. The authoress presents the most important views concerning the pragmatics of media images and their influences on social life, and the difference between critical and non-critical pedagogy in the context of cultural reproduction, and symbolic violence in the communication process.
EN
The expansion of the European Union to include 10 new members, 8 of which were formerly part, or satelittes of the Soviet Union, has been understood as the reuniting of Europe. The integration of the two halves of the continent by peaceful means, which only 15 years ago were facing each other with nuclear weapons, is adjudged to be an epoch making triumph. The fulfillment of the European Union project depends upon successful communication and deliberation between the varied peoples of the continent. However, both within and without popular discourse national stereotypes influence the direction, tenor and resonance of cross-cultural communication. This paper examines how the British press made use of national stereotypes in the months before and after EU expansion on May 1st 2004 and explores their function, saliency and their potential influence for EU integration. The author maintains that the use of particular stereotypes is tied to the political orientation of specific newspapers and are utilised to construct a particular construction of reality. He also contends that an examination of stereotypes within the press can shed light upon the quality of contemporary political debate within our democracy.
EN
Alternative futures oriented to contemporary global problems solutions and risk management are related to citizens' ability to learn how to become global (cosmopolitan) citizens. Important conditions for that should be analyzed within the processes and conditions shaped by globalization of media and communication. This learning has not been institutionalized so far (as in the education), and it is a result of rather indirect social interaction. Individuals are embedded into complex network of the global information flows and, at the same time, they are members of their national and local communities. Cosmopolitan individual is a virtual member of a global community. Social analysis with ethical reflection should study with more attention global media as one of the key globalizing actors shaping the public space of communication with the power to form and deform cosmopolitan participation.
7
Content available remote The Sciences in the Radio
80%
EN
In the first part of the paper, a short story of radio in Poland is outlined with stress put to its fundamental role in educational activities and popularisation of science. In the second part of the paper, the author presents his views as regards developments necessary for improving popularisation activities in the Polish media.
8
Content available remote Český realismus v exilu : o časopise Skutečnost (1948-1953)
80%
EN
In this article the author discusses 'Skutecnost' (Reality), a remarkable Czechoslovak emigre periodical published after the Communist takeover. The author was one of its founders and editors. 'Skutecnost' was started up in Geneva in late 1948 essentially as a students' monthly. The first number was published in March 1949. Owing to its high quality, openness, non-partisanship, forthrightness, critical approach, and non-conformism, however, 'Skutecnost' soon gained an extraordinary standing amongst emigre periodicals. Its programme and name reflect its affiliation with the realism of Tomas Garrigue Masaryk (1850-1937), in the sense of its perspicacity and critical assessment of reality, advocated an active, uncompromising defence of democracy against totalitarianism, supported the integration of European values, castigated emigre politicking, boldly held up an unflattering mirror to its countrymen, and detested platitudes. Its critical jibes were a thorn in the side of many an emigre; the special issue criticizing the post-war expulsion of the Czechoslovak Germans, for example, caused an uproar. Its editor-in-chief was the Slovak journalist Karol Belak, and its regular contributors included a number of distinctive emigre figures from around the world, for example the literary historians Peter Demetz (b. 1922) and Jiri Pistorius (b. 1922), the journalists Ferdinand Peroutka (1895-1978) and Pavel Tigrid (1917-2003), the writers Jan M. Kolar (1923-1978) and Jiri Karnet (b. 1920), the historians Jiri Kovtun (b. 1927) and Zdenek Dittrich (b. 1923), and the politician Jaroslav Stransky (1884-1973). It increasingly published translations of articles by non-Czechoslovak authors, including emigres from other central and east European countries. Its range of action expanded considerably, when the selection of articles from 'Skutecnost' began to be published in Czech, English, and German versions in 'Democratia militans'. In his discussion the author mentions the conflict that arose after Meda Mladkova (b. 1919), an art historian and collaborator of 'Skutecnost', took over its administrative work and moved the editorial office to London in 1951. He concludes by stating that this initiative of the young generation of emigres contributed to overcoming the sense of disappointment, apparent deadlock, and genuine lack of programme amongst the Czechoslovak emigres.
EN
The article focuses on the media representations of women-politicians and women-candidates during Czech Republic Parliamentary Election in 2006. Using the results of extensive quantitative and qualitative research of the media contents the authoresses analyse the ways in which journalists report on women in politics and on equal opportunities issues in general. Their analysis starts with the following questions: What form of representations do the media use? How much space do they allocate to women-politicians? Which topics they connect with women participants in the big league politics? They claim that during the 2006 Parliamentary election there was a distinct raising public and media demand on the topic of equal opportunities. The authoresses therefore ask: How did the media deal with the issues of equal opportunities? What form did the representation of women in the Czech political life take? They come to the conclusion that despite the media (public) need for the equal opportunity agenda setting, there is still general lack of deeper knowledge, which could form a meaningful and useful discussion.
EN
The paper discusses the subject of indirect counseling, limiting it to the field of television broadcasting. The article takes as a point of departure a survey conducted among pedagogy students. Yet, the survey (written form) did not concern counseling issues. The authoress attempted to determine how young people watch their favorite TV programs, that is: what they are doing in front of the TV, and what they are thinking about. Thus, the aim of this research was not to analyze the media content, but to describe everyday forms of 'being' with media. (The results can be found in another paper by D.Zielinska-Pekał entitled 'Between Bustle and Ritualization', (in:) Esthetics - Art - Media, ed. Maria Jablonska, Wroclaw 2008). This research, in turn, provided inspiration to reflect on TV counselling. The authoress analyses the clients - their attitudes to the media and to the unusual form of counseling. Moreover, two of these attitudes have been described, namely experiencing and watching TV counseling. The former is characterized by commitment, problem identification, readiness to accept help; the viewer adopts the role of a counseling client. Watching, on the other hand, is characterized by little commitment, absence of a problem, readiness to be entertained; the viewer is seen as a spontaneous principant. Moreover, the authoress describes one more attitude (so-called intermediate form). In contrast to watching and experiencing, which were of constant and unchangeable character, this third attitude is fluent, changeable and of continuous nature. Emergence of this intermediate form dramatically changes the role of a client in TV counseling, including the change of his status, role and approach to a TV program.
EN
Responsibility is the first and most important condition necessary for the media to be properly used. The statements pertains both to creators and recipients as well as to institutions that are standing by, being qualified to perform educational activities, such as the Church, the state, school, or family. The present paper is an attempt to look at the media from the responsibility perspective in the context of the teaching of John Paul II. The papal teaching reveals three aspects: first, it is about the responsibility of creators and editors for the media; second, it is about a responsible usage of the media; finally, it is about the social responsibility for the two above-mentioned aspects. Journalists are responsible for the shape and effects of their work; recipients are responsible for what they take advantage of and how; and yet, the state, the Church and family also take responsibility for everything that takes place in this respect in the closest community.
12
Content available remote PRÍPAD SVÄTÁ HELENA A OCHRANA MALOLETÝCH V MÉDIÁCH
80%
EN
Television and radio programs can endanger the healthy development of minor percipients. Therefore, several tools have been developed to prevent this. They are legislative, psychological and educative tools. However, according to an original research, the claim about the protection of minors is not quite true. On the island of Saint Helena in the south of the Atlantic television was not introduced until the 1990s. Prior to and after the introduction, an English research team did an in-depth research into the behaviour of minors on the island. This showed that watching television had not had a negative impact on them. However, this research is in contrast with the finding that there is an unacceptable practice of sexual harassment and abuse of young girls and women on the island. This study compares these two facts and raises a question whether youth-threatening television programs can endanger youth who already display an unsuitable or criminal behaviour, or whether the introduction of television cannot have an opposite effect and positively influence youth by bringing in advanced civilization values and models.
EN
The article is focused on explanation of Slovak terms “journalism” and “publicistics“ and points out the diverse understanding of these terms from different conceptual theories – theories of journalism (or media theory) and theories of stylistics. The article is focused on the journalism – politics – media relationship and their interconnections. Journalism, that brings new information about political life and political events every day, is determined by political environment. The relationship between journalism, media and politics is interconnected – journalists and media need politicians as an important source of information. Politicians consider journalists and media as an important way of communication with public and as a “key players” of public opinion shaping.
EN
Nowadays the mass media play substantial role in modern culture. Although not so long ago it was said that they were the forth estate, at present the media are considered to be of the greatest importance. It is not allowed to underestimate their influence neither on individual nor on the whole societies' life, which is why nobody questions their influence on men's demeanour. The media interactions, initially in the scientific consideration, were regarded in micro-perspectivistic categories, meaning that their influence on individuals was observed - their intellectual understanding, attitudes, behaviour and moral values. Nevertheless the daily routine has shown that the mass media can not only affect individuals, but also, through the individuals, it can have an effect on the whole societies - cultural, political and social hanges. That is why the media interactions has begun to be considerd in macro-erspectivistic categories.
15
Content available remote Madness in the Media: Political extremism and beliefs in historical primacy
80%
EN
Beliefs in the divine descent of a nation and its glory, grandeur and even biblical origins are not uncommon worldwide. In this discussion focusing on such beliefs amongst Hungarians and Serbs, the author demonstrates that far from being unique to states undergoing transition from communism, similar beliefs have also arisen over a long period of time amongst nations who have never experienced a totalitarian polity. He speculates that just as theories of divine descent arose in connection with royal families in monarchies, theories of linear descent from ancient peoples arise from the logic of nationalism enshrined in the nation state. As long as such states persist, similar theories will continue to emerge. What is specific to some countries in transition is the relative influence that these concepts may achieve, or rather their ready availability. This, in the author's opinion, is not the result of any atavistic element amongst central or eastern Europeans, but rather is a consequence of relatively weak markets and a low degree of media autonomy in transition countries.
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tom 20
211-232
EN
Te year 2008 was named by the European Commission the Year of Intercultural Dialogue. Celebrations of the Year were intended to: respect and promote cultural diversity, support the idea of solidarity, ensure equal opportunity to the inhabitants of the EU, build partner relations with member EU countries and with the countries from outside the Community. Tis article is a short presentation of main events of the Year of Intercultural Dialogue in Poland. Tis paper draws attention to cultural pluralism and as to how cultural pluralism is implemented by the media. How the idea and the events of Year of Intercultural Dialogue were presented by media in Poland. Moreover, this paper analyzes how journalists contributed to promote cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue. Tis study is based on policy documents, reports of governments, NGO’s and international organizations, academic literature and content analyses of media in Poland.
EN
It is quite understandable that different dictionaries and manuals as well characterize the terms newspaper and magazine (periodical) in different ways. Anyway it is not quite understandable why these different ways are so different. That is why the paper has been leaned on a fact-finding. Its author has gone through different kind of dictionaries and manuals to find out how the above mentioned terms are characterized. As for the dictionaries and encyclopaedias as well, they were of different kinds (e.g. language, general and specialized ones, in Czech, English, Polish and Slovak). The hypothesis, which was formulated by the author, stated that the most accurate would be the specialized dictionaries. But this assumption proved to be wrong and the most precise definitions of the two terms were found in an general encyclopaedia, namely Funk's & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia.(31volumes. New York : Funk & Wagnall Corporation, 1971-1993). On the pieces of knowledge found in the books, which the author went through, he formulates his own definitions of the terms newspaper and magazine and points out the signs (features) of difference between them. At the same time he underlines that any attempt of this kind is doomed, as the complexity of the terms cannot be put into a few words. Nevertheless we should try to be as accurate as possible.
EN
The paper discusses the dual nature of tabloidization, conceived not as a mere imitation of tabloids but as a process which consists in adjustment to the expectations of the reader, a process in which the crucial value is that of good reception and effectiveness (profitability) as its measurable effect. Thus, tabloidization does not only concern tabloids as such but is present in the transformations of the media as a whole, the transformations being an aspect of a larger process of the transformation of contemporary culture. Secondly, there are two dimensions of tabloidization: tabloidization of content (i.e. the selection of certain themes and topics only because they are interesting to the general public) and tabloidization of transfer (a change in the format of the newspapers and magazines, the increased importance of non-verbal coding, a higher frequency of occurrence of specific linguistic means). As an example, the paper analyzes a series of articles from a non-tabloid daily “Gazeta Wyborcza”, titled Brat Karol. Siostra Wanda, which appeared in June 2009 (as well as an introductory advertisement and an introductory article). Th e analysis reveals the process of tabloidization of transfer (more exactly of language), but also the tabloidization of content. The tabloidization of language is manifested through the use of linguistic means such that they result in an augmentation and increased directness of the reading, as well as in an easier reception of the text. Tabloidization is also manifested through an apparent flouting of conversational maxims and a loose treatment of the principle of cooperation, which leads to the creation of a communicative message containing a simplified and biased worldview. Being familiar and easily understandable, the worldview is attractive to the reader. In this way, reality is mythologized. The reader receives a text which does not only relate to the difficult relationship between Karol Wojtyła (as bishop and pope) and Wanda Półtawska. The text is also about a relationship between a man and a woman. The attractiveness of the publication does not result from it being yet another text about John Paul II, a national hero, but from the new roles assigned to the protagonists (Wanda’s role is that of a woman, Karol’s is that of a man). The acceptance of the roles leads to a direct and intense reception of the message, as well as to the emergence of author–reader kind of community. In effect, the text is an instance of the tabloidization of content, where the content is not provided in a straightforward manner but through tabloidization of transfer.
19
80%
Studia theologica
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2012
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tom 14
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nr 3
13–30
EN
In this paper, the author draws attention to the importance of witnesses of faith in the coverage of religious message in the media. By witnesses of faith he means people who draw media attention in connection with various events and for various reasons. They obtain the attention of the media for their testimony. The author analyses four groups of witnesses – the Pope, faith believing individuals, the faith believing mass of people and faith believing journalists – and illustrates the possibilities of effective mediation of religious messages using the examples from media practice. Not only does verbal testimony seem to be important, but also non-verbal testimony, with an emphasis on testimony based on experience from one’s own life.
EN
The logistical function has been known more than a hundred years for mathematical description of progresses. Different diffusion processes, such as the spread of contagious diseases show logistical growth as well. In this study we targeted to reveal the signs of logistical growth on some specific area of the press. For this purpose we have chosen the public discussion, and examined how the press reacted to the announcement made at Christmas in 2003 in the radio channel called 'Tilos Radio' where one participant declared that he 'would liquidate all Christians'. We consider our research as an attempt to contribute to the interpretation of certain communication models and to provide some hypothesis for further development. First we collected all relevant articles from the leading Hungarian daily press: the evolution in time of the number of articles published is a typical S-curve of the logistical growth. Upon specifying our criteria, it turned out that publishing occurred in several waves, in three main categories.We then applied the logistical function on these three categories. The structure of these diagrams reveals the publication strategy of the newspapers concerned. The most surprising conclusion of our investigation is that only in one out of the three categories did we get to see the complete S-curve on the empirically applied logistical function. To be able to get a complete S-curve on the other categories as well, we should have implied that the investigated event had been only a later part of a stream started long before in time. Of course, it would be a paradox to state that the 'Tilos Radio'-case started long before the announcement was made on 'Tilos Radio'. Therefore, the result shows that the press operates in a kind of state of emergency. Daily press behaves in case of some certain topics like a close-wound spring. In such cases even a small act could trigger strong reactions. By using our method, we could measure and therefore, compare the state of emergency in the press.
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