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EN
Eco-friendly synthesis of ethyl 3-(4-oxo-3-(1-(pyridin-3-yl)ethylideneamino)-2-thioxoimidazolidin-1-yl)propanoate (4) ligand (L) using microwave irradiation technique was described. The structure of thioxoimidazolidine derivative ligand compound has been established based on different types of analyses such as infrared, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectra as well as elemental analysis. The copper, cobalt, and nickel(II) complexes with molecular for-mula [M(L)(H2O)4]Cl2 (where M = Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II), L = thioxoimidazolidine derivative ligand), have been prepared and well-characterized using microanalytical, conductivity measurements, magnetic, spectroscopic, and physical analyses. Upon the outcome results of analyses, the stoichiometry of the synthesized complexes is 1:1 (M:L). The molar conductance values concluded that the behavior of metal complexes was electrolytes. The 3-(4-oxo-3-(1-(pyridin-3-yl)ethylideneamino)-2-thioxoimidazolidin-1-yl)propanoate chelate acts as a monovalent bidentate fashion via nitrogen and oxygen atoms of both thioxoimidazolidine and propanoate ester moieties. The geometric structures of the synthesized metal complexes are an octahedral confi guration based on spectroscopic and magnetic moment studies. The thermogravimetric assignments deduced that the presence of four coordinated water molecules. The synthesized copper(II), cobalt(II), and nickel(II) complexes were biologically checked against G+ and G- bacteria and two species of fungi (Aspergillus Nigaer, and Penicillium Sp.).
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Content available remote A Basic Logic for Reasoning about Connector Reconfiguration
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Software systems evolve over time. From a component-based software engineering perspective, this means that either the components of the system need to change, or, if components are connected using a coordination layer, then the way in which they are connected needs to change, or both. In some situations, changes must be performed without stopping the running system. This not only introduces a serious technological challenge, it also makes reasoning about the evolving system difficult. One approach to this problem is to use component connectors to plug components together. Reconfiguration of a system can then be reduced to reconfiguring the component connector, as changing component implementations can be implemented by changing which components the connector connects together. The coordination language Reo offers operations to dynamically reconfigure the topology of component connectors, but until now, no means for reasoning about reconfiguration in Reo has been developed. This issue is addressed in this paper. To enable reasoning about connector behaviour, and hence behaviour of the composed system, we present a semantics of Reo in the presence of reconfiguration, and a logic together with its model checking algorithm.
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Cooperating with universities is complementary to other innovation activities such as performing own R&D, sourcing public information and cooperating with other partners. Poland will have to focus more strongly on developing capaci-ties in innovation and business sophistication. Stronger clusters, more R&D orientation of companies, and intensified collaboration between universities and the private sector. The article presents research other and own study.
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The aim of the paper is to present arguments for implementing fiscal policy constraints in monetary union member countries and to compare experience in this area in two non-European monetary unions in Africa and the EMU. The author offers a brief review of arguments-for and against fiscal convergence in a monetary union-presented in the literature on the subject. This empirical and theoretical review leads to the conclusion that, under some circumstances, there is a great need for fiscal policy coordination in monetary union member countries. The key question is how fiscal convergence should be designed and how multilateral surveillance should be enforced. To answer this question, the CFA Franc Zone experience with fiscal convergence criteria was compared with that of the EMU. The author notes that some fiscal convergence criteria are unique and specific for these groups of countries but some other criteria are common, regardless of the features of individual economies. Therefore fiscal coordination should be union-specific to avoid any disadvantages highlighted in theoretical analyses and resulting from decreased fiscal policy flexibility.
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Monetary and fiscal coordination is extensively discussed in economic publications. The debate involves both mainstream and institutional economics as well as political sciences. The article contributes to this debate. It reviews theoretical positions adopted in mainstream economics and examines various aspects of the macroeconomic policy mix. The author selectively presents policy mix experiences in select regions of the world, specifically the European Monetary Union, the United States and Great Britain. The article confronts some theoretical studies with practice and points to the weaknesses of empirical testing based on econometric methods. The author applies a historic/comparative method characteristic of qualitative research. The results of the analysis show that, unlike in Great Britain, monetary and fiscal coordination is missing in the euro zone and the United States. This is largely due to the equal status of the government and the central bank. Reviewing the methodological aspect of the problem, the author concludes that the empirical testing of models for the coordination of government and central-bank decisions should be supported with a comparative historical analysis.
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The paper examines issues related to the coordination of fiscal and monetary policies. The author discusses the implications of delayed monetary and fiscal decisions and the difficulties involved in setting economic policy goals. He also describes the “one-armed policymaker” syndrome and the “zero bound problem.” The discussion indicates that proper coordination makes it possible to limit delays in economic policy. It also offsets the shortage of instruments at the disposal of policy makers and helps prevent deflation pressure, while increasing the efficiency of economic policy under “the zero bound problem.” All this increases the probability that monetary and fiscal policy makers will successfully attain their goals. The author concludes that the relationships between monetary and fiscal policies are much deeper and more complex than they seem to be, going beyond their traditional perception in terms of inflation and budget deficit financing. Moreover, considering the limitations of fiscal policy that reduce its flexibility, coordination efforts should primarily support the position of the central bank as a prime decision maker with considerable room for maneuver. Fiscal authorities should essentially limit themselves to supporting central bank activities and pursuing well-designed policies.
EN
Although e-government as a research topic is rather embedded in public-administration literature, and coordination of and through e-government is visible in European countries, coordination of and through e-government has not been paid much attention. Consequently this paper deals with this topic. Its text outlines emerging coordination practices that can be observed in European countries, and it also indicates issues using the Czech e-government development and some key national initiatives as examples. Th e presented text concludes that although elements of strategic planning may become embedded and institutional and regulatory mechanisms stabilized in the country, other issues such as a weak accountability culture may exist and hinder coordination practices.
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Content available remote Periodic coordination in hierarchical air defence systems
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The subject of this work is the defence planning of a point target against an air attack. The defence system is decomposed into a number of sectors. A direct method of coordination is used at the upper level, while the sectors use a discrete-time event-based model and the description of uncertainty by multiple scenarios of an attack. The resulting problems are solved using linear programming. A comparison of two coordination strategies for realistic attack scenarios and an analysis of effectiveness are provided.
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Purpose. The objective of this study was to determine the level and rate of change of reaction time during the developmental period from early childhood to early adulthood. Polynomial regression analysis was applied to determine the age at which the best reaction time results are achieved. Methods. The study involved 550 females between the ages of 7 and 20 years. Participants completed a computer test measuring simple reaction times to visual and auditory stimuli and choice reaction time during the ontogenetic developmental period. Results. Analysis of the results for age group distinguished two sub-periods of reaction time dynamics: a progressive increase throughout the developmental period followed by a plateau phase. This was evident for all reaction time measures (simple and choice) particularly in the case of that data collected empirically. Conclusions. best reaction times to visual and auditory stimuli were approximately at the age of 17 years. In turn, quickest choice reaction time was approximately one year earlier in life. The most dynamic increase in the results of both simple reaction times was between the age of 7 and 8 years, whereas for choice reaction time this was between 10 and 11 years of age.
EN
Purpose. The present study attempted to determine the effect of the number of hours spent playing computer games per week on somatic characteristics and the performance of selected coordination motor abilities. Methods. Ninety-seven prepubertal boys from rural areas of southern Poland were recruited. Selected coordination motor abilities were assessed by use of computer tests and a questionnaire was administered to determine the amount of time spent playing computer games. Basic somatic characteristics such as body height, body mass, body fat percentage (%PF), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Descriptive statistics were calculated mean and standard deviation ( , sd) for the studied coordination abilities and somatic characteristics. One-way ANOVA for independent samples was employed to determine the differentiation between the results of the studied variables depending on the mean numbers of hours spent playing computer games per week. Results. Analysis revealed statistically significant differences between the results and the number of hours spent playing games, specifically for kinesthetic differentiation, spatial orientation, and the speed, accuracy, and precision of movements (in the number of committed errors). The lowest somatic characteristics including BMI was observed in the group of boys who spent the least amount of time playing computer games. Conclusions. It was found playing computer games 8 to 11 hours a week positively affected coordination motor ability, although individuals who played more than this amount of computer games had a higher incidence to be overweight or obese.
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Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare CMAs in elite wrestlers and taekwon-do competitors. Material and methods. Forty-nine Greco-Roman wrestlers and ITF taekwon-do competitors were included in the study. The wrestlers were 21.9±2.74 years old, while the taekwon-do competitors were 22.7±5.78 years old. The former group had between 7 and 14 years' training experience and the latter group had from 6 to 16 years' experience. All subjects were elite sportspeople (between first class and international master class levels). Five CMAs were assessed using 14 indices. Computer tests from the Vienna Test System were employed in the study. Results. It was shown that there were no significant differences in CMA levels between wrestlers and taekwon-do competitors. Wrestlers from higher sports classes outperformed competitors who possessed lower sports classes in the majority of CMA indices. Statistically significant differences were observed for simple reaction, movement coupling and high frequency of movements. Taekwon-do competitors at the international master sports class (IM) level scored better than athletes who were at national master class (NM) and first class (I) levels in spatial orientation, reaction time, movement coupling and high frequency of movements. Regardless of the type of combat sport, competitors demonstrated high individual differences in CMAs, which may indicate that a focus on coordination improvement could increase training effectiveness. Conclusions. Further research on identifying predominant CMAs in sportspeople at different levels of competition, particularly in those achieving significant sports successes may be conducted. Tests to thoroughly diagnose coordination should be employed in such investigations.
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Content available remote Coordination Technology in Design of Biologically Inspired Robot
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The use of symbol construction and coordination technology of hierarchical systems with its standard block aed for the formal description of biologically inspired robot and its design process is considered. Aed includes aggregated dynamic and structural models of object being designed. Coordinator connects the models and performs the design and control tasks on its layers. First, theoretical basis of the technology is briefly discussed. Formal description of Bioloid robot and design of its assembling and motion processes are presented after that in the paper.
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This study investigated whether difficulty manipulation strategies affect learning in the fine motor coordination task, perceived competence (PC) and perceived difficulty (PD). Thirty -nine novices’ right - handed boys (age 11.3 ± 0.4 years; stature 147 ± 8.94 cm ; body mass 40.57 ± 0.07 kg; mean ± SD), volunteers, were assigned to either control group (CTG: no difficulty manipulation)and two experimental groups: group 1 (EG1: one -dimension difficulty manipulation) and group 2 (EG2: two- dimensions difficulty manipu lation). All protocol sessions were conducted at the same time -of-day, in which, there were three periods: familiarization, acquisition and retention phases. Moreover, two stress- conditions of darts throw were investigated (i.e.: free condition (FC) and ti me pressure condition (TPC)). Results showed significant effect between - groups (p = 0.01, η2 = 0.215) based on difficulty strategies manipulation. Analysis showed an improvement in accuracy values in retention tests for only EG1and a significant l ower coefficient of variation (p = 0.41, η2 = 0.154) compared to the CTG and EG2. Errors decrease over time for CTG in FC (p = 0.041, η2= 0.203) but not in TPC, while no significant differences in errors for EG1 and EG2 (p = 0.19, η2 = 0.911) in the two st ress -conditions. Moreover, PD was significantly different between all test - phases (p = 0.041, η2 = 0.234) for EG1 only. The one -dimension learning strategy improves retention in accuracy performances, whereas, both strategies, do not affect errors in both FC and TPC . Therefore, teachers in physical education are not encouraged to combine difficulties in learning process of a novel fine motor coordination task.
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Supply chain coordination through contracts has been a burgeoning area of research in recent years. In spite of rapid development of research, there are only a few structured analyses of assumptions, methods, and applicability of insights in this field. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic overview of coordinating contracts in supply chain through highlighting the main concepts, assumptions, methods, and present the state-of-theart research in this field.
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In the Russian Federation, interregional cooperation is limited, which negatively affects regional development and contributes to growing regional disparities. The goal of this research is to gain better understanding for slow and inconsistent development of interregional relations in Russia. The main hypothesis is that the lack of proper coordination and communication between the federal and regional levels of government, between regions themselves, as well as between regional authorities and other stakeholders in regions’ development is one of the key problems that hampers development of interregional cooperation in contemporary Russia. Retrospective, statistical, and content analysis were used to test this hypothesis. The analysis of the federal policy toward regional development since 1990 has shown gradual increase in centralisation of authority. The regional policy stimulated interregional competition and dependence on federal investments and subsidies. Nevertheless, the study of strategic plans of Siberian regions shows that with proper coordination and communication between interested parties some of the problems inhibiting interregional cooperation can be resolved. Better coordination, in turn, requires improvement of the institutional infrastructure. The findings are relevant for policy makers and scholars in the field of regional development. Further research is needed concerning the most efficient forms of coordination institutions.
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Content available remote Coordinate compounding in English and Spanish
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Coordinate compounding is a process which has been only sporadically considered in word-formation studies on Germanic and Romance languages. In this paper, we compare the situation in English with that in Spanish as far as formal structure and semantics are concerned. To this end, an operational definition of coordinate compounding is first provided, after which a semantic classification of coordinate compounds is developed. For each type, variants are discussed, representative examples are provided, and similarities and dissimilarities between the two languages are highlighted. We finish by raising the issues of recursiveness and productivity in coordinate compounding and we examine the possibilities of expansion and profitability of the different patterns. Our analysis reveals marked similarities between English and Spanish coordinate compounding at various levels, hinting at the possible existence of a cross-linguistic set of common core features in the class of coordinate compounds in both Germanic and Romance.
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The article argues that the EU’s diplomatic activity in the G20 is not so much determined by its powers in the founding treaties, but rather by external factors that influence the specific behaviour of the Union with regard to negotiating individual points of the Group’s agenda. As far as the EU’s economic and financial issues are concerned, the European Union, balancing between member-states that do not have a single representation in the G20 and the EU4 (United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy), chooses an interaction mode that can be defined as (hard) bargaining. In other, less sensitive issues such as climate change, development policy, gender or employment, the EU prefers arguing. The article presents these two narratives of the EU’s participation in the G20 as a diplomatic actor. Their choice affects the level of coordination of the diplomatic activity of the European Union, relations between its member states and activities of institutions representing the EU in the G20.
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Content available remote Organizational forms of coordination and integration of activities in
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Solving the problems connected to coordination in managing complex projects is crucial for their successful completion. The paper discusses organizational forms of coordination in implementing a project and the factors that should be considered when selecting them, so that the amount of coordinating potential generated by the chosen form is proportionate to the actual needs in this field.
PL
Rozwiązanie problemów koordynacji w zarządzaniu złożonymi projektami ma kluczowe znaczenie dla ich powodzenia. Stąd też w artykule przedstawiono organizacyjne formy sprawowania działań koordynacyjnych w projekcie oraz uwarunkowania ich doboru, umożliwiającego dostosowanie potencjału koordynacji do występujących w tym zakresie potrzeb.
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Embodied mind theories underline the role of the body in the act of knowing. According to the enactive approach, we learn to perceive and to know through our bodily interactions with the world (Varela, Thompson & Rosch, 1991). However, such an approach remains incomplete as long as sociality is not taken into account (Froese & Di Paolo, 2009). Recently, an inter-enactive approach has accordingly been proposed. Social interactions are seen as processes of coordinated sense-making that emerge from the dynamics of the inter-action process itself (De Jaegher & Di Paolo, 2007). As learning mainly takes place in intersubjective contexts (e.g. as an effect of teaching), this approach is relevant to the issue of pedagogy. Teaching settings are a special case though: cognitive interactions are reciprocal but asymmetrically guided by the teacher. In this paper, the question of the relations between body and education is thus addressed from the point of view of the inter-enactive approach. To this end, we first sketch out the phenomenological and theoretical contours of embodied intersubjectivity and intersubjective embodiment. Then, we present an interactive pedagogical method for musical learning (free spontaneous four-hand improvisations in the context of the Kaddouch pedagogy) and discuss it using illustrative case studies. The teacher’s role appears to operate directly within the dynamics of the interaction process, a source of knowing and skill enaction for the learner
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The synthesis and characterization of new coordination compounds of some organotin(IV) chlo rides with fexofenadine are reported; the ligand molecules appear to be bound to the tin atom through carbonyl oxygen atom. The structure of the synthesized compounds has been characterized by elemental analyses, and bonding in these complexes is discussed in terms of their IR, 1H NMR and through Mössbauer studies. The spectroscopic results obtained are in full agreement with the proposed 1:1 stoichiometry. The synthesized complexes have been screened for anti-inflammatory effect. The results obtained showed that triphenyltin(IV) derivatives of fexofenadine exhibited promising anti-inflammatory effect as compared to the other tin(IV) derivatives of the same ligand.
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