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This paper focuses on the distinction between luxury and necessary borrowings from English (i.e. Anglicisms) and the relationship between these borrowings, the domains in which they are used and their pronunciation and orthography. I put forward a hypothesis that the ratio of luxury and necessary borrowings differs within different domains and that this has an impact on the pronunciation and orthography of the borrowings; I tested this hypothesis by analysing 500 Anglicisms. The results confirm that (1) there is a difference in the distribution of luxury or necessary Anglicisms within different domains and (2) necessary Anglicisms are more often pronounced according to their original orthography than luxury Anglicisms. However, I also detected a strong association between the period in which Anglicisms were borrowed and the manner in which they were adopted; therefore, it was not possible to identify a direct link between the type of borrowing and pronunciation, and further research is required to confirm the above hypothesis
The article outlines the status of calques among loanwords and their treatment in the Czech linguistic literature. It then presents the analysis of a sample of 1,360 calques (1,065 lexical, 295 semantic) from structural, word-class and semantic points of view, noting the differences between these two categories of anglicisms and their special features. It seeks to explain their different word-class distribution (nouns predominant among lexical calques; semantic calques approaching standard distribution). Among the interesting finds are the discovery of multi-word semantic calques and the very substantial number and rapid spread of this type of loan in general.
Content available remote Fonologická adaptace anglicismů v kvantitativním pohledu
The article aims at describing and quantifying the phonological processes involved in the adaptation of Anglicisms to Czech. The object of the analysis is a comprehensive database of phonological forms obtained from dictionaries. The prevailing principle is phonological approximation, i.e. the perceptually motivated, systemic substitution of English phonemes by Czech phonemes, which includes, apart from one-to-one phonemic projections, phonological mergers, context-sensitive substitutions, and variant substitutions. The adaptation is based on the British phonological system, the influence of American English being only marginal. The second fundamental principle in order of importance is spelling pronunciation. The distribution of these principles and their combinations is relatively stable in the centre and at the periphery of the lexical subsystem of Anglicisms. In approximately one-fifth of the sample, the two primary principles are complemented by one or more secondary principles (analogy with English, Czech or a third language, language universals, anomalies).
This paper explores the pronunciation of the dental fricatives /θ ð/ in loanwords of English origin (i.e. Anglicisms) as well as in English proper names in Czech. I identify a considerable gap between the recommended and actual pronunciation of the dental fricatives: while alveolar fricatives (/s z/) are recommended in language manuals and textbooks, in actual language use Czech speakers pronounce the dental fricatives predominantly as alveolar stops (/t d/). My hypothesis for this imbalance between recommended and actual pronunciation is that, to date, authors of language manuals and textbooks have failed to take into account both the pronunciation norm of Czech speakers and the original English pronunciation. I make a number of arguments for the replacement of the English phonemes /θ ð/ with the Czech phonemes /t d/ or /f v/, which I consider more suitable than their replacement with the “recommended” /s z/. However, given the lack of reliable guidelines for the pronunciation of the dental fricatives, I observe both significant variability in pronunciation, particularly in the case of recent loanwords such as smoothie and think tank, and a high level of uncertainty among speakers with respect to how Anglicisms containing dental fricatives should be pronounced.
The paper is devoted to the analysis of the latest Czech vocabulary the hybridity of which results from the combination of word-formation means of Czech and English origin. It first focuses on the position of hybrid formations among borrowings and provides a terminological overview of the types of borrowing from English (anglicisms – pseudoanglicisms – calques – hybrids). Then, drawing on a sample of excerpts from contemporary Czech texts, it suggests possible classifications of hybrids with English word-forming elements and illustrates their different types.
Příspěvek je věnován analýze nejnovější české slovní zásoby, jejíž hybridnost vyplývá ze spojení slovotvorných prostředků českého a anglického jazykového půvo- du. Nejprve se zaměřuje na postavení hybridních útvarů v rámci přejímek a poskytuje terminologický přehled typů přejímek z angličtiny (anglicismy – pseudoanglicismy – kalky – hybridy). Na základě vzorku excerpce ze současných českých textů pak naznačuje možné klasifikace hybridů s anglickými slovotvornými prvky a ilustruje jejich různé typy.
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