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EN
The paper deals with screen fictional violence (TV and cinema). The analysis focuses on the genres of gangster, war, horror and action films. The interesting point in the paper is the evolution of means of violence visualization, until the postmodernist version without context or interpretation. The psychology of reception and the paradox of receptive pleasures drawn from watching brutal scenes are analyzed in the paper. The author underlines the variety of explanations and sources of this kind of pleasures. However, one must admit that there is more than one universal theory in this field.
EN
The manuscript elaborates on types, properties and functions of films and edible coatings as well as on benefits that result from the possibility of incorporating into their structures antimicrobial agents in the form of organic acids, natural substances, i.e. bacteriocins, antimicrobial enzymes and also plant oils. In addition, it describes methods for inserting those antimicrobial compounds into edible packages and for their release from the matrix.
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Content available remote HETEROTOPIAS IN THE SLOVAK FICTION FILM OF 1990S AS SPACES OF SELF-TRANSFORMATION
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The paper examines heterotopias in three distinct Slovak films as symptoms of disenfranchisement on the part of the film-makers during the transformative period in Slovak cinema. The first part analyses idyllic and heterotopic qualities of space in Martin Šulík’s Záhrada [The Garden, 1995], while the following parts examine heterotopic spaces in debuts by Štefan Semjan Na krásnom modrom Dunaji [On the Beautiful Blue Danube, 1994] and Miroslav Šindelka Vášnivý bozk [Passionate Kiss, 1994]. The paper shows how heterotopic qualities of spaces in these films correspond with self-transformation of the main characters and how the very processes of self-transformation can serve as commentaries on current situation within Slovak film industry.
EN
The paper describes the effect of a new media (film) on the dramaturgy of Martinu's opera Three Wishes and thinks on the potential of film, which puts to use in the staging of Martinu's opera piece. The opera Three Wishes is not only a reaction to the artistic and dramaturgic potential of film, but also a reaction to the new artistic movements. The opera librettist, Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes, was a follower of dadaism and the libretto to this opera has also dadaistic dimension. Martinu and his librettist oppose conventional dramatics. This feature can be found also in his music. In his opera Three Wishes, Martinu refuses the romantic concept of emotionalism and the gradation of dynamism of the latter half of the 19th century. Each of the staging of Three Wishes captures the issue of opera film in a different way. Evald Schorm, director of the world premiere of this opera piece in Brno, in 1971 (forty-two years after the opera was composed), produced a film dimension of the opera along the lines of Chaplin's grotesque. The last staging of Three Wishes by the Czech director Jiri Nekvasil in Volkstheater Rostock, in 2007, was produced as a colourful theatre collage. The opera Three Wishes is a multilayer entertaining musical theatre. Its content is close to classical musical.
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Content available remote PERCEPTION OF MACHINE AND TECHNO - IMAGINATION
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AThe study deals with a technical perception of a device (a camera) in whose center is as an end product a technical picture and its analogical codes. We indicate them analogical in that sense, since they can develop an ancient experience of humanity with a mirror. A photography and film substitute properties of the mirror and establish a new relationship between 'mirror' as a supercode and its reporter. They create codes, which record the reporter in the status where 'here and now' (reality) the reporter 'was' (photographic and film picturing). We distinguish two-dimensional flat codes in case of photograph, and three-dimensional flat codes in case of film. We speak first of all about the flat configurations. The influence of techno - perception on our natural perception can be shown on the various manipulation forms, and on the arranging of pre-aparatus reality (for a camera or film camera) for the purpose of its shooting, since only in the status of a technical picture, the reality reaches an intentional meaning, or on the contrary, the omnipresence of technical pictures retroactively determines our behaviour in the natural reality.
EN
In this movie the plot is constructed by the thoughts of the narrator. They follow two patters. In the first case a current event is shown as connected with past occurrences. The narrator's mother talks with him on the phone and reminiscences about her former boss who recently died. In the second case two events are connected by spatio-temporal contiguity. The narrator's son is asked by an elderly woman to read something to her. While he sets himself about to do it, the woman disappears leaving a hot cup of tea behind. In each case the troubling question is what is real. In the telephone case it is highly improbable that the print house where the mother had worked could actually make the politically incriminating printing mistake. In the tea cup case it is unbelievable that a ghost of a woman would drink a cup of tea. Memory easily confuses fact and fiction, and creates a world that seems partly real and partly unreal.
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In her analysis of Kusturica's film 'Underground', the authoress is dealing with perception of a Balkan 'spirit', which connects 'naturalism' with spontaneity and authenticity, but also with resistence, enabling to endure endless violance. The symbols of vigorousness and resistance are in 'Underground' understood like moral and ambivalent, and instead of a general Balkan spirit, are derived from the history of the Serbian guerilla rebellion. These are constantly exhausting and at the same time naturalistic labels, however not understood to be ancient in the original meaning of the word. The authoress is documenting that if Kusturica urges on certain traits as the sediments of the particular historical events, he has still not been entirely retreating from Balkanism. His vigorousness, 'boisterousness', 'naturalism' which have been until now mentioned by lots of his foreign and domestic fans, and which are in the film 'Underground' given a free passage, especially in the long scene of a wedding ceremony, are pictured by Kusturica using a demostrative irony. These features are predominantly atributs of the manners making the Balkanians traditionally 'different', for 'Europe' for the way of organizing their entertainment - ritualized in the specific ways of a fun and a relaxation. Emir Kusturica (equally with 'Underground' co-screenwriter Dusan Kovacevic) is not intending just to deny or insecure Balkan premises, but above all to consistently nuance them.
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The text is a partial result of the thematic analysis of Slovak television production from the early 1990s, which Slovak film studies have not yet fully examined. The author analyses the figure of an artist and/or humanistic intelligentsia in television fiction after November 1989, emphasising especially images of their exclusion in terms of “purity and danger” concepts as well within the context of sceptical narratives of the social change.
EN
American science fiction cinema of the 1970s began To employ eclectically presented references to eclectic views on religious topics. Films directed by artists such as Steven Spielberg and George Lucas offered viewers the stories influenced by the Christian and Buddhist symbolism as well as selected theses of the New Age Movements. The authors wanted to create in their productions new religiousness patterns, derived from the writings of some leading figures of the counterculture, such as Herbert Marcuse, Charles Reich, and Theodore Roszak. For this purpose they processed some storylines from science fiction novels and mass culture. This strategy was continued in the 1980s and first half of the 1990s, however the productions from this period showed a radicalization of the educational-ideological context which was associated with the conservative policy of the USA during this period. The end of the 1990s and the first decade of the twenty-first century is a period of erosion the New Age optimism of science fiction cinema. The growing popularity of plots with catastrophic and dystopian visions of the future indicates that religious topic in contemporary cinema fulfills different functions.
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Content available remote AUTENTICITA A DOKUMENTARIZMUS V SLOVENSKOM VIZUÁLNOM UMENÍ PO ROKU 1990
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EN
The revival of documentary film at the turn of the millennia, caused by the influence of available digital technology and the advent of the young generation, has also been reflected in visual arts - in their need to provide testimonies about private, personal, family, and partner situations or stereotypes (Gabika Binderová, Pavlína Fichta Čierna, Anton Čierny), which sometimes overreach into public, socio-political affairs and phenomena (Ľubomír Ďurček, Peter Rónai, Elena Pätoprstá, Pavlína Fichta Čierna, Ilona Németh, Anna Daučíková, Kristián Németh, Mária Štefančíková, Katarína Karafová). Several authorial strategies, for example, journal entries, reality staging, observational, participation, performative, and reflexive approaches to processing reality, inspired by world trends and by theory, touch upon topical and universal themes – personal and collective memory (recording and erasing), memory places, the political and social body, gender stereotypes, etc. Despite common points of departure, motivations, used means or anti-audience “artsiness”, visual arts and documentary film preserve their own rules of game and specific manners of re/presentation.
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Content available remote DOMINIK TATARKA – SCENÁRISTA
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The study interprets the results of research focused on the specific area of the work of the famous Slovak writer Dominik Tatarka (1913 – 1989). During the years 1948 – 1972, Tatarka devoted himself to a film work. This is evidenced by the preserved film stories, treatments or literary scenarios, as well as documentation on the literary-dramaturgical preparation of individual works (contracts, correspondence and review). The author of the study utilised materials available from the National Archive of the Slovak Film Institute in Bratislava, in conjunction with materials found at Tatarka’s estate in the Literary Archive of the Museum of Czech Literature in Prague. On the basis of the research, it can be stated that only one feature-length film based on Tatark’s scenario was created in the reviewed period: Miraculous Virgin directed by Štefan Uher (1966).
EN
Ichikawa Kon (1915-2008), one of the most important and prolific Japanese directors, made almost eighty films during the seventy years of his career. His accomplishment is considered to be particularly difficult to judge due to its astounding variety of genres, themes, styles and tone - simultaneously sardonic, pathetic, cruel, sentimental, tragic and comic. However, regardless of the story that Ichikawa was depicting through all the images he created - starting from animations, through literary adaptations, postwar humanist movies and sentimental comedies, experimental films to documentaries – he never stopped thinking in terms of contemporary society and the problems it faces. Tracing the vicissitudes of Japanese postwar social history on the screen becomes an unforgettable adventure. This essay tries to investigate Ichikawa's oeuvre in the overall perspective by presenting some of his most widely acknowledged and recognised films as well as by introducing to the broad range of problems they invite.
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Content available remote FILMOVÝ HOROR A JEHO VÝVOJ
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tom 60
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nr 3
359 - 378
EN
Horror is a genre which is gaining more and more popularity and spreads into all media and art fields. The oldest, literary horror is the most popular in the United States of America and Japan, where this tradition has the strongest roots and the longest history. In our country, the film production is preferred. The paper focuses on horror in film production. It defines the genre in general, its dominants and typology variations. It describes the historical development of the genre in this particular field and presents the profiles of the most significant representatives of the horror film. In conclusion, it characterizes the recipients and their reasons for seeking the genre.
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Content available remote MULTIKULTURALITA AKO FENOMÉN VO FILMOCH S TEMATIKOU HRANICE
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tom 60
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nr 3
314 – 321
EN
The study focuses on Central European documentary films which directly suggest the concept of multiculturalism as they take place in an environment of mixed and coexisting cultures and subcultures, living in the geographically divided or frontier areas. The perception of intercultural dialogue in the context of the Central European and in Slovak cinema is largely monologic, facing inward, with strict hierarchy of perceptions of cultural clashes. The dominant culture responds to other cultures from the perspective of power and the presence of minority is regarded as schematic and stereotyped. Therefore, transnational solidarity occurs only rarely. This situation can be attributed to the long period of closure of national and cultural boundaries among the Central European nations with their relationships based only on the common ideology and often treated the cultures of the other ideological block as their enemies. After 1989 and after the emergence of new states, there was an increase of the nationalist passions related to the national consciousness in the early years of nation-building, and since joining the European Union, the native Central European cultures have been taking lessons of how to cope with their own minorities, and respond to new cultures of immigrants, or other previously marginalized groups and collective identities.
EN
Bednár and Uher’s work from the sixties can be regarded as a testimony about a period conditioned by totalitarian ideology and about a man who is confronted with turning moments in history. He increases his human value “only” by life, by the moral value choice, not by submitting to the norms of the system. That is why the screenplay (1968) and the film Three Daughters (1967) are targeted against totalitarianism. The contemporary communist ideology, which “writes the history” with language as an example of socio-cultural pressure, by its symbols as models for reality, is confronted with character personalities of the thematic historical section they have formed to the extent that they have different attitudes within individual discourses. In the story of Three Daughters the heroine defends her father and she beats “culture of power” only in the perspective.
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tom 60
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nr 6
495 – 503
EN
The goal of the article is to reflect on a selected sample of the films which can be classified as westerns but they put the western mechanisms, conventions, clichés etc. into new unusual contexts. That way the limits of the original genre are exceeded, especially by means of the hybridization moment and the eclectic enhancement, most often by fusion with other genres. The text of the article is dedicated to the fragmentary analytical-interpretative reflection of resource materials which can be given an overall sub-genre or genre-hybrid tag „the weird western“. On the one hand, the concept of the study respects the interpretation of the equivalent English expression „weird western“ as the denomination of the genre combining the western mainly with the supernatural and science fiction elements, on the other hand, it carefully monitors the „weirdness“ as a result of the crossover of the western and genres different from science fiction (horror, musical and comedy etc.).
EN
Today’s theatrical art sometimes utilizes modern electronic technologies of visualisation that may be, especially if we use a certain amount of simplification, generally defined as “video”. This kind of technology consists of a complex set of devices: shooting cameras, recording devices, trick equipment, broadcasting devices, screens. Theatrical mise en scènes once used to involve film; however, mostly before the emergence and refinement of digital video technologies. It is beyond any doubts that compared to film, video has many advantages – one of the most significant of these advantages is the fact that video technology allows to provide simultaneous online streaming of both image and sound. In case creators and producers of a theatrical mise en scène decide to use such a technology, they tend to favour it over the theatrical elements, which may lead to a shift from mimesis towards virtualisation of the performed spectacle. On the other hand, classic theatre, along with its long-term tradition and solid forms, is a strong, persistent sphere of art; even the video is rarely able to prevail and change the scenic reality into a virtual, abstract electronic world. We have decided to discuss these theoretical notions in relation to the theatrical mise en scène Fanny and Alexander by Ingmar Bergman, which was directed by Marián Amsler and performed at the Slovak National Theatre in 2016. Our analysis reflects on the forms of hybrid convergence merging theatrical art and video art in this particular case. However, as the conclusion suggests, video art and its technological possibilities may have influenced the mise en scène’s overall setting, but the given theatrical work was able to preserve its own integrity without sacrificing any part of the true nature of theatre as such.
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Content available remote UMELECKÉ A ESTETICKÉ VÝCHODISKÁ FILMU JÁNOŠÍK (1921)
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EN
This study focuses on the first Slovak feature-length film Jánošík (1921) by the Siakeľ brothers. It conducts a historical analysis of the birth of the film and its anchorage in the socio-cultural context. At the turn of the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries and in the first quarter of the twentieth century, there were two crucial works that influenced the Jánošík film. Firstly, it was the novel Jánošík, kapitán horských chlapcov, jeho búrlivý život a desná smrť (Jánošík, the Captain of Mountain Lads, His Tumultuous Life, and Horrible Death, 1894) written by Gustáv Maršall-Petrovský. Although the film makers openly declared that the screenplay, written by Jozef Žák-Marušiak, was based on this novel, it is obvious that the plot of the film does not agree with that of the novel and that its other influential source was Jiří Mahen’s play Jánošík (1910), whose plot was adopted by the film a lot more prominently. Nevertheless, the author traces several common elements in the film and the novel, which he finds in the specific modernistic element in these two adaptations of the legend of Jánošík.
EN
During the war years 1939 – 1945, films were popular way of spending free time and escaping from everyday reality. They were not only a means of entertainment, thanks to them it was possible to present a specific message to the general public, and they were misused for political, ideological and propaganda purposes. In this period, cinemas showed anti-Semitic films, full of xenophobic ideas, films celebrating the German army and “Aryan ideals”, but also films offering simple entertainment. The financial and creative potential of the Slovak Republic was limited, so the demand for films was supplemented by pictures distributed from abroad. As a result of the political and military situation, German films predominated in Slovakia. Using the example of the town of Nitra, the study presents information about films shown in a middle sized Slovak town, analysing their origin, genre, message and price. It gives information about visits to the cinema as one of the possibilities for spending free time, as well as about efforts to politically exploit them.
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Content available remote Wielość wartości dostrzeganych w filmach przyrodniczych przez studentów
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Rocznik Lubuski
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2010
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tom 36
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nr 1
173-184
EN
Mass media, as a generally available means of transfer, have the possibility to influence human personality, because of their diverse program themes. Natural scientific films are nowadays really popular to watch. Animal lifestyles are shown in them in a natural way. It is interesting, surprising, intriguing, and shocking. They generate a whole spectrum of values, attitudes or behavior types, which not always have a positive effect on the human psyche. They also evoke emotions which are dysfunctional, like fear, sadness, hatred, or anger. In present days also another type of influence caused by these films has emerged, and that is therapy.
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