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According to the just world hypothesis, people want to and have to believe they live in a just world so that they can go about their daily lives with a sense of trust, hope, and confidence in their future (Lerner,1980). Justice can be seen as a key issue in intimate relationships. People want to be treated justly and consider justice to be one of the most important attributes of a good intimate relationship. Social justice research has shown that people respond with negative attitudes and behaviors when they perceive unjust treatment or situations. However, belief in a just world is associated with a positive coping style (Dalbert & Filke, 2007). The aim of this contribution is to examine the level of the belief in a just world (personal and general), find out which strategy is most used when people cope with injustice in intimate relationships, and analyze the relation between the belief in a just world and particular coping strategies. The results showed no significant relationship between the belief in a just world and coping strategies. The authors ´s findings are inconsistent with the Montada and Lerner study (1998), in which the belief in a just world was associated with constructive coping strategies.
In the article the author argues that discrimination of many people and nation by European colonialism through some last centuries was the reason of innumerable crimes and sufferance all over the world. That process he compares with a great destructive wave of tsunami. Today we can observe the opposite and negative reaction to those injustice in the past, namely it is the process of coming back wave of tsunami. i.e. coming back wave of revenge. Its source is quite deep and complicated because of enlarged areas of the world poverty. To be more clear it is impossible to avoid that revenge unless rich countries decide to replace military and economic domination by immense help. Better make medical services, schools and agriculture in miserable countries than guns and rockets.
In this article the results of research on situational determinants of envy and schadenfreude are presented. Based on a literature review conducted, five hypotheses were devised concerning various situational factors influencing the intensity of envy and schadenfreude. The questionnaire used in the research was devised on the basis of interactional psychology and measured envy and schadenfreude. Situational dimensions concerned in the research were type of relation (close vs. distant/strange person) and the level of justice vs. injustice of the situation. 248 people participated in the research. Devised hypotheses were confirmed. Empirical results point out that along with expectations, the strongest envy is experienced in situations with subjectively perceived elements of injustice and towards distant acquaintances and strangers. The strongest schadenfreude was experienced by participants finding the situation of a stranger justifiable. It also occurred that women react with stronger envy in situations of the unjust success of a stranger whereas men, regardless of the situation, experience stronger schadenfreude in situations of the failure of a close as well as an unknown person.
Content available remote Egzystencjalne znaczenie cierpienia w aksjologii Władysława Tatarkiewicza
The problem of human suffering was not the subject of a separate publication by Władysław Tatarkiewicz. However, such theme matter appeared in a few of his important publications, including his post-doctoral thesis “On inexorability of the good”, after-war publication “On happiness” and a small treatise “Ethical bases of revindication and compensation” justifying Polish claims for reparations after the warfare. Tatarkiewicz made a distinction between physical and spiritual suffering, but each one was always considered as a bad thing. War experience changed his attitude in this matter and therefore he admitted that it is impossible to eliminate suffering from human life and hence he claimed that one can experience happiness even in spite of some negative sensations. Age is not an obstacle to feel it either. However, he pointed out that undeserved suffering justifiably demands a compensation and the lack of it or evasion from redressing the wrong are immoral. One cannot evade a duty of minimizing of suffering because even personal suffering cannot be the reason of drawing back from moral duties fulfillment.
The paper shows a socially significant problem of poverty that results from injustice and hidden exploitation. A response to the threat of the sin of social injustice and economic exploitation of the weaker is the postulate to build a supportive society in which the richer and the stronger – being aware of the bonds that tie one human family – take responsibility for the poorer and the weaker. The postulate of tolerance is not sufficient as tolerance is merely a postulate that is enough for justice to occur; tolerance does not cause justice, though, nor does it assure it. It is not until the emergence of solidarity that the suffering and hardship of other people are recognised as a matter of one’s own responsibility, and their mitigation, or even elimination, becomes acknowledged as one’s duty. At a time of crisis, shortages and lacks human attitudes are verified; characters and maturity run the test of responsibility for all members of a community, especially those members who have been harmed by social injustice.
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