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1
Content available remote Recursos cohesivos basados en elementos deícticos
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EN
This article examines the role of deixis in cohesive devices used in written communication forms, focusing on the use of deictic elements for cohesion at various discourse levels, as well as the persistence of original meanings of such deictic elements in selected units, e.g. discourse markers and coreferential expressions.
EN
The main objective of this paper is to show the differences and similarities in the use of demonstrative forms in Polish and Spanish, which arise not only from differences paradigmatic (Spanish ternary system vs Polish binary system), but also pragmatic context. With the help of electronic corpora the author tries to answer the question of what factors influence the conceptualization of these deictic expressions in both languages.
3
Content available remote From gesture to adverbial – Swedish det as an example of linguistic polysemy
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EN
Every grammar of the Swedish language provides information concerning the unit det. The Swedish det can be used both pronominally and adnominally, fulfilling a wide range of functions in the language. However, in traditional grammar one does not pay attention to the links and mutual relations between the individual occurrences of this unit. Thus, within such a framework, the Swedish det can be treated as an extreme example of homonymy. Is that possible in language?The main goal of this article is to show the semantic value of the unit det (in its nominal function) in contemporary Swedish, adopting the perspective of Cognitive Grammar. I shall try to prove that all uses of this unit are linked to each other semantically. Thus, the meaning ascribed to det constitutes a complex network of senses rooted in the prototype, which is a cognitive reference point within the category. The article can be interpreted in a wider context of the research concerning the use of units which are functionally “related” to the Swedish det in various languages, e.g. the English it, the German es, the Polish to etc.
EN
The paper discusses two series of temporal expressions in Polish: one that localizes the described event with regard to the act of speech (the deictic series), and one, used in narratives, that localizes it with regard to a fixed point (the so-called anaphoric series). Both series indicate simultaneity, anteriority, or posteriority of the event with regard to the act of speech (Pol. dziś ‘today’, wczoraj ‘yesterday’, tydzień temu ‘a week ago’, jutro ‘tomorrow’, za tydzień ‘in a week’, and others), or with respect to a fixed point (tego dnia ‘that day’, w przeddzień ‘a day before’, w poprzednim tygodniu ‘a week before’, nazajutrz ‘the day after’, w następnym tygodniu ‘a week later’). The two series differ in certain syntactic grammatical properties, e.g. connectivity with tense forms of the described verbs; cf. the impossible *Jutro byłem ‘I was tomorrow’, and the possible, when talking about the past, Nazajutrz byłem ‘I was a day after’. The anaphoric series, being semantically more general, can usually appear in deictic contexts; the opposite is not true, cf. the impossible *Tego dnia był w Krakowie, a jutro pojedzie do Zakopanego ‘He was in Cracow that day, and he will go to Zakopane tomorrow’.
5
Content available Czas w tekście urzędowym
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PL
In the office world time runs in a different way than in the world. of colloquial expe- rience. Untargeted texts (legał texts) project futurę events; therefore a considerable num- ber of office utterances is formed in a futurę tense. In legał utterances there is actually only a relative time i.e. as far as time is concemed, an event may be presented only in re- ference to a different event and time period between them, and not through a datę (an ab- solute time moment). The absolute time appears only in the regulations determining the datę when a given legał act comes into force.On the other hand, in office letters, the absolute time (the calendar time) dominates, which is connected with a documenting function of these texts. Time dating is connected with factography and further proceedings. Time deixis is expressed in the form of nume- rals indicating a day, a month and a year, or in the form of adverbs (e.g. immediately, promptly etc.)
EN
The principle of anthropocentrism, being the basis of human cognitive activity, detects the subject’s central position in the fictional universum. Possessing verbal fixation the subjects of the fictional text, the Narrator and the Character, interacting with each other form a subjective narration model. The stages of the subject’s representation in the fictional text related to the lack of knowledge of communicators’ field in general, are formally reflected in the sequence of nominations. The classic narration based on the maximum connectivity of its component elements, should tend to such a type of organization of the co-referential nominations’ rows, which would let the narratee clearly identify the object throughout the text. The deviances in the co-referential nominations’ rows, which occur in the non-classic narration, provoke referential interpretation and lead to the increment of text entropy. Basing on Vladimir Nabokov’s stories, two types of egocentric introductions in the co-referential nominations’ rows have been detected, based on the narration manner. The first type is reflected within the context of third-person narration, when a deictic first-person pronoun introduces itself with the identical reference as a proper noun, an anaphor, a substantive expression, into the sequence of character’s nominations. The second type is reflected in the first-person narration, it is related to the introduction into the sequence of nominations of a character not involved in the communication, a deictic second-person pronoun. “Egocentric explosions” in the co-referential nominations’ rows represent one of the most effective stylistic devices of the non-traditional narrative formation. They lead to the narrative mode switching providing stereoscopic effect.
EN
The article proposes to carry out a sociopragmatic analysis of the environmental discourse of the Spanish press based on texts from 2019 and early 2020, lexicographical consultations in Fundéu as well as different dictionaries. We also analize discursive peculiarities in critical discourse analysis that work in the field of ecolinguistics. In particular, an outline of the lexical-semantic level and pragmatic functions is made, with special attention paid to the personal deictic markers. Finally, we highlight the link between environmental discourse with other discourses within the framework of the theory of interdiscursivity.
ES
El artículo se propone realizar un análisis sociopragmático del discurso medioambiental de la prensa española tomando como base una serie de textos del año 2019 y comienzos del 2020, así como consultas lexicográficas en la Fundación del Español Urgente (Fundéu) y diferentes diccionarios. Asimismo, se analizan las peculiaridades discursivas dentro del análisis crítico del discurso que funcionan en el campo de la ecolingüística. En concreto, se hace un esbozo del nivel léxico-semántico y funciones pragmáticas con una atención especial a los deícticos personales. Por último, destacamos el vínculo entre el discurso medioambiental con otros discursos en el marco de la teoría de la interdiscursividad.
EN
The paper addresses the distinction between micropragmatics and macropragmatics. It is postulated that this differentiation, a consequence of a number of controversies surrounding the core field of pragmatics, does manifest a number of conceptual merits and methodological feasibility. The article also aims to elaborate on the four concepts central to the methodology of pragmatics, i.e. deixis, presupposition, implicature and speech acts, from an essentially ‘micropragmatic’ perspective, describing their contribution to the proposition of an utterance, its illocutionary force, and a wide range of effects the utterance may produce. At the same time, however, three relativities-regularities are indicated and presented as prompts for an integrated study of intentionality at the macro level of discourse/text.
EN
This paper aims to analyse, through a contrastive approach, the asymmetries between Italian and Russian in the encoding of deictic reference. Some complex and divergent instances of deictic anchoring are discussed in relation to the notion of deictic centre (or zero-point, in Lyons’ terms). Different types of asymmetry can be identified according to structural and functional criteria: a) overcoding versus undercoding of deictic information (e.g., Italian tra and dopo versus Russian čerez); b) different internal articulation of the deictic reference (such as in the sequence of tenses, which is governed by mood and tense in Italian and solely by tense in Russian); c) the adoption of a different perspective in the deictic conceptualisation of space, time, and person (as in conversive predicates). All of these types of asymmetry seem to affect learners’ acquisition of L2. For this reason, a systematic analysis of errors committed in deictic reference can be a useful tool for second-language teaching.
IT
Il presente contributo si pone l’obiettivo di indagare, mediante un approccio contrastivo, alcuni casi di asimmetria tra l’italiano e il russo nella codifica del riferimento deittico. In relazione al concetto di centro deittico (zero-point, secondo la terminologia proposta Lyons, 1977), sono analizzati alcuni esempi complessi di differente ancoraggio deittico nelle due lingue, raggruppati in base a criteri strutturali e funzionali: a) casi di ipercodifica vs ipocodifica (come nell’uso di tra e dopo vs čerez), b) casi di diversa articolazione interna di un analogo riferimento deittico (come nell’uso di modo e tempo del verbo vs solo tempo nella consecutio temporum) e c) casi in cui il riferimento deittico viene concettualizzato secondo prospettive diverse (come nei predicati conversivi). Tali forme di asimmetria risultano particolarmente complesse per gli apprendenti delle due lingue, motivo per cui l’analisi degli errori prodotti nella codifica della deissi può rivelarsi un utile strumento anche in una prospettiva didattica.
DE
Der vorliegende Artikel analysiert das Problem der Indexikalität als potentiell relevanten Übersetzungsfaktor. Der Autor bespricht kurz die bisherige Forschung zur Indexikalität in der Philosophie, Ethnomethodologie und Linguistik. Anhand von zahlreichen Beispielen aus dem Schaffen von Zbigniew Herbert werden schließlich vier Haupttypen der IX: die sprachliche, die kulturbedingte, die syntaktische IX sowie die IX der höheren semantischen Einheiten vorgeschlagen.
EN
The present article concerns the problem of indexicality as a relevant factor in translation. Indexicality has long been a central point in research since the 20th century in philosophy, ethnomethodology and linguistics. The author distinguishes four different kinds of indexicality within a text: language-based, culture-based, syntactic indexicality and the indexicality of higher semantic units. The issue is discussed and shown on several examples from poetic texts of Zbigniew Herbert.
EN
The Paco Roca’s graphic novel Los surcos del azar depicts Spanish Republican Miguel Ruiz's itinerary in his fight against fascism during the Second World War. Numerous spaces are thus covered or evoked during the mentioned historical events. Representation and perception of space and history are inseparable, and it seems that the writing of space could, on its own, rewrite history, as we will try to demonstrate by adopting an exclusively linguistic approach.
FR
Le roman graphique Los surcos del azar de Paco Roca met en scène l’itinéraire du républicain espagnol Miguel Ruiz dans sa lutte contre le fascisme durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. De nombreux espaces sont ainsi parcourus ou évoqués au fil des événements historiques mentionnés. Représentation et perception de l’espace et de l’Histoire sont donc indissociables et il semble que l’écriture de l’espace pourrait, à elle seule, réécrire l’Histoire, comme nous tenterons de le démontrer en adoptant une approche exclusivement linguistique.
EN
In gesture studies character viewpoint and observer viewpoint (McNeill 1992) characterize co-speech gestures depending on whether the gesturer’s hand and body imitate a referent’s hand and body or the hand represents a referent in its entirety. In sign languages, handling handshapes and entity handshapes are used in depicting predicates. Narratives in Danish Sign Language (DTS) elicited to make signers describe an event from either the agent’s or the patient’s perspective demonstrate that discourse perspective is expressed by which referent, the agent or the patient, the signers represent at their own locus. This is reflected in the orientation and movement direction of the manual articulator, not by the type of representation in the articulator. Signers may also imitate the gaze direction of the referent represented at their locus or have eye contact with the addressees. When they represent a referent by their own locus and simultaneously have eye contact with the addressee, the construction mixes referent perspective and narrator perspective. This description accords with an understanding of linguistic perspective as grounded in bodily perspective within a physical scene (Sweetser 2012) and relates the deictic and attitudinal means for expressing perspective in sign languages to the way perspective is expressed in spoken languages.
14
Content available La traduzione delle espressioni deittiche
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EN
The deictic expressions are linguistic units that indicate the localization of an object in time and space. Every language is characterized by different deictic structures that depend on various linguistic and extralinguistic factors. The analysis of the factors that determine the deictic systems in Italian, Spanish and Polish demonstrates various problems associated with the translation of that kind of structures and offers different ways of solving them.
IT
Le espressioni deittiche sono tutte le unita linguistiche che indicano la localizzazione di un oggetto nello spazio e nel tempo. Ogni lingua si caratterizza per l’altra struttura deittica dipendente da vari fattori linguistici ed extralinguistici. L’analisi dei fattori che condizionano i sistemi deittici dell’italiano, dello spagnolo e del polacco dimostra vari problemi legati alla traduzione di questo tipo di costruzioni linguistiche e propone distinti modi di risolverli.
EN
Th e aim of this paper is to inquire into the possibilities of utilising personal ads as a source of cultural-anthropological research. Specifi cally, it proposes an analysis of a corpus of over 500 ads, published in 1931–1934 in a magazine of the Czechoslovak homosexual minority, the Voice of the Sexual Minority. It proposes to approach these very short utterances as signs, analytical work being possible only at the level of the signifi er. It also proposes to analyse some crucial expressions, repeated very often in these ads, through the concept of a symbolic-deictic fi eld. In this way, the paper reaches a conclusion that sheds new light on conceptual categories of the interwar Czechoslovak homosexual subculture, which have not yet been perceived by a classical historical research.
CS
Studie usiluje o to, prozkoumat na korpusu čítajícím přes 500 anonymních inzerátů uveřejněných v letech 1931–1934 v československém časopise homosexuální menšiny Hlas sexuální menšiny, resp. Nový hlas, možnosti využití tohoto typu pramene v kulturně-antropologickém výzkumu. Navrhuje pohlížet na tyto krátké výpovědi jako na znaky, kdy analytická práce je možná pouze s označující rovinou. Některé klíčové výrazy, opakující se v těchto inzerátech, navrhuje analyzovat pomocí konceptu symbolicko-deiktického pole. Tímto pohledem dospívá k závěru, který vnáší nové světlo do kategorií uvažování meziválečné homosexuální subkultury, dosavadním klasickým historickým bádáním nepostřehnutých.
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