The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy of extraction of genotoxic pollutants from soils performed by means of several solvents. Soil pollutants were extracted in the Soxhlet apparatus. Extract genotoxicity was assessed using the Ames Test. All the examined soils (12) contained genotoxic pollutants. Extraction with hexane allowed detection of pollution genotoxicity in 11 soils, whereas with methanol and dichloromethane in 10 soils each. The other solvents allowed detection of genotoxicity in fewer soil samples. Methanol extract had the highest genotoxicity in the majority of soils (7 out of 12). Results obtained in the present study and literature data allow recommendation of methanol for extraction of genotoxic pollutants from soils. Methanol is more versatile, efficient, common, and less harmful for laboratory workers than dichloromethane and hexane.
Jakość zdrowotna wody do picia pochodzącej z ujęć powierzchniowych zależy przede wszystkim od stanu czystości wody ujmowanej oraz od stosowanego procesu technologicznego i rodzaju środków dezynfekcyjnych. Zastosowane zabiegi technologiczne oraz dobór środka dezynfekcyjnego wpływały w sposób znaczący na obniżenie potencjału tworzenia trihalometanów. Potencjalna aktywność mutagenna i rakotwórcza próbek wody utrzymywała się lub też pojawiała się w wyniku działania środków dezynfekcyjnych zawierających związki chloru.
City of Wrocław is supplied with water from Oława. The main contaminations of water are high concentration of organic compounds and bacteria count. Raw and drinking water show some mutagenic and carcinogenic properties in Ames tests. To improve the quality of drinking water now technology bored on infiltrated water composed of, coagulation, filtration and desinfection was tested. The goal of investigation and was to examine mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of raw and treated water. Potential carcinogenic activity of volatile disinfection - by - products was estimated by direct analysis of THMs, while for nonvalatile halogenated organic substances Ames test was used. Carcinogenic risk based on THMs concentration could be estimate as 10-5 for chlorine and 10-6 for chlorine dioxide. Ozonation and post chlorination did not lowered the risk. Positives results of Ames test obtained for raw water no 2 with Salmonella typhimurium TA100, and for chlorinated treated water with Salmonella typhimurium TA98. The treatment of water with chlorine transforms same compounds into carcinogenic chlorinated derivatives and does not eliminate its harmful properties. Our results suggest that not all methods of treatment remove harmful to the health components from the water. Consequently in the case of the presence of such compounds in surface water it is necessery to employ appropiate methods and procedures the used Ames test allows rapid determination of the presence of carcinogenic compound in water. In Poland determination of the presence of potential carcinogens in water destined for the supply of urban areas is not obligatory and standard analyses of chemical composition do not give such information. It seems that the mentioned test could be considered for the control of the quality of raw and treated water as an indispensable measure contributing to reducing the health hazard for the population.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a sewage treatment plant on the occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms among the local residents. A survey was conducted on two populations: one from the vicinity of the sewage treatment plant (the exposed group: 586 people), and the other from outside the impact area of the plant (the control group: 502 people). The research area was divided into distance zones from the plant (A, B, C). The questionnaire included questions about the occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders. Compared with the control group, the local residents reported more often: nausea, vomiting, and frequent diarrhea. Occurrences of gastrointestinal disorders were associated with air pollution by pathogenic staphylococci (OR~7) and odours (OR = 7.34; Cl 3.43-15.72) emitted by the plant, and also living in zone A vs. zone C (OR = 3.47; CI 1.00-12.07), use of a gas cooker in houses (OR = 2.21; CI 1.03-4.70), and the age of the respondents (0.98; CI 0.96-1.00). The study showed that as distance from the plant increased, the incidence of reported gastrointestinal disorders declined. Living in the vicinity of a sewage treatment plant favours the occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms among the local residents.