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Respiratory tract infections are the most common communicable diseases, which include pharyngitis, otitis media, rhinosinusitis, laryngitis, bronchitis and pneumonia. Although the majority of pathogenic agents responsible for these conditions are cosmopolitan, the differences in frequency and severity of these diseases associated with climate and living conditions may appear. The aim of the study is to assess if there are significant differences in frequency and severity of respiratory tract infections in different countries. A survey, consisting of 49 questions involving the frequency of respiratory tract infections, antibiotics’ usage and demographic data was delivered to the users of a social network used to finding penfriends from abroad. Collected data was statistically analyzed and compared with climate conditions and economic indices in different countries. 462 respondents, aged 12-79 (mean age 25,15 ± 9,43, median 23) from 119 countries submitted their answers. First raw, preliminary data describe a prevalence of different types of respiratory tract infections and commonness of antibiotic therapy. This initial report with preliminary results of the survey should be a first step towards determining the differences in frequency and severity of respiratory tract infections, as well as in antibiotic treatment. Data gained during the survey need further analysis.
Personal hygiene is deemed a necessary precautionary measure against different communicable diseases. Its importance is further reiterated during the current COVID-19 global pandemic. Maintaining personal hygiene, such as washing hands and sneezing etiquette are being considered as effective means of precaution. In the present study, the knowledge and practice level of hand hygiene and sneezing etiquette among different university students in the city of Dhaka in Bangladesh were investigated as these students represent a substantial fraction of the total population in Bangladesh. It was also observed if they have adopted any change in their hygiene practices due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 240 students from different universities. An online-based questionnaire was provided to them. In this study, 96.7% of students were found to be aware of personal hygiene. 45% of students washed their hands 10 times a day, while 60% of them were unaware and maintained random durations of handwashing. The majority of them were aware of the sneezing rules and 48.3% of them used their elbows during sneezing. 79.2% of the tissue user students usually dispose of the tissue in a designated covered bin. Their hygiene practice had also been changed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, our result is insufficient to reflect the overall condition of Bangladeshi university students as it was done with limited resources via an online survey during the countrywide COVID-19 lockdown. Thus, future research is required to draw a conclusive picture.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, cancers, diabetes and obesity are responsible for about two thirds of mortality worldwide, and all of these ailments share a common low-intensity systemic chronic inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress), and the ensuing Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). These adaptive mechanisms are also responsible for significant metabolic changes that feedback with the central clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, as well as with oscillators of peripheral tissues. In this review we attempt to use a systems biology approach to explore such interactions as a whole; to answer two fundamental questions: (1) how dependent are these adaptive responses and subsequent events leading to NCD with their state of synchrony with the SCN and peripheral oscillators? And, (2) How could modifiers of the activity of SCN for instance, food intake, exercise, and drugs, be potentially used to modulate systemic inflammation and ER stress to ameliorate or even prevent NCDs?
Infectious disease surveillance systems are a very important part of national and local efforts to prevent and control infectious diseases. In many countries, especially those with limited health systems, the role of primary care physicians in surveillance is essential, but their lack of knowledge about surveillance can often be a barrier for an effective surveillance system. A one day training seminar was provided to physicians in a primary care centre in AP Vojvodina, Serbia and notifications of infectious diseases by trained physicians were then followed. After the training, the incidences of registered infectious diseases rose 3.9 times (7.5 times with chicken pox excluded). This was mostly for infectious diseases which do not require laboratory confirmation (streptococcal infections, intestinal infectious diseases). The average number of reports per physician increased nearly 8 times with almost all the physicians who participated in the surveillance study.
Systemy nadzoru nad występowaniem chorób zakaźnych są bardzo ważnym elementem krajowych i lokalnych działań mających na celu zapobieganie i kontrolę nad rozprzestrzenianiem się chorób zakaźnych. W wielu krajach, w szczególności tych z ograniczonymi zasobami systemów ochrony zdrowia, podstawową rolę w nadzorze pełnią lekarze. Niedostateczna ich wiedza w tej materii często bywa barierą dla efektywnego systemu nadzoru. Przeszkolono lekarzy w systemie jednodniowego seminarium w Instytucie Zdrowia Publicznego w Vojvodinie w Serbii. Szkolenia przeprowadzili wcześniej odpowiednio przygotowani w tym kierunku lekarze. Po takim szkoleniu 3,9 razy wzrosła częstość zarejestrowania przypadków chorób zakaźnych (nie licząc ospy wietrznej gdzie częstość ta zmalała 7.5 razy). Dotyczyło to głównie chorób zakaźnych, które nie wymagają potwierdzenia laboratorium (infekcje paciorkowcowe, jelitowe choroby zakaźne). Średnia liczba sprawozdań w przeliczeniu na jednego lekarza powiększyła się prawie 8 razy i dotyczyło to prawie wszystkich lekarzy sprawujących nadzór na chorobami zakaźnymi i uczestniczących w niniejszym badaniu.
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