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Content available remote The Service Sector in the Economy in Poland and European Union Countries
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The role of the service sector in the economy is increasing in the process of socio-economic development. This tendency has been confirmed and explained by the three-sector theory formulated by A.G.B. Fisher, C. Clark, and J. Fourastie. The main goal of the paper is to show development tendencies in service sectors in Poland and the EU countries and assess them in view of the three-sector theory. The share of the service sector in the total employment and in the total gross value added in the years 2005-2013/2014 will be analysed together with two sub-sectors including market and non-market services. The research shows that the share of the service sector in total employment and total gross value added has been recently increasing in Poland as well as in other EU countries, but there is a gap in this process between Poland and the most developed EU countries. Moreover, in Poland, the role of market services has been recently increasing much faster than the role of non-market services.
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Active labour market policy has an important role to play in the conditions of high structural unemployment in Poland. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to evaluate the role of active labour market policy in Poland throughout the 2000-2003 period that gives consideration to its programmes, main instruments, its participants and its expenditures. In many cases, the point of departure for this evaluation will be experiences of the European Union in the respective field.
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Content available Wybrane problemy indeksacji dochodów
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The article deals with problems concerning the nature of incomes indexation and possible solutions as regards its form and degree. Incomes indexation is understood to mean a process of automatic and/or semiautomatic linking of nominal wages increase with increase of costs of living taking place in accordance with principles fixed earlier and encompassing all persons entitled to compensations regardless of the effects of their work.
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The article contains the findings of empirical studies conducted in the period 1986-1987 in the field of an evaluation of influence exerted by the reform in the retail prices system on changes in their relations in an intergroup approach and an evaluation of the role played by various price-formative factors, which could cause changes in these relations. The findings in question allowed to formulate the following conclusions: - In the period under survey, the prices of non-food items were growing relatively faster than prices of foodstuffs. That is an indicator of unfavourable relations of prices from the viewpoint of rationalization of consumption and its effectiveness-promoting impact. - The cost factor does not have any significant influence on changes in relations of pricess, and especially in the case of non-food items. - The financial effect (gross profit) is of decisive importance for occurring changes in relations of prices.
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The main goal of the paper is to recognize the changes in the occupational structure of employment by the great occupational groups in selected economic sectors in Poland in the years 2000–2010. Development of modern industries and services and restructuring of the agricultural sector lead to demand increase on new occupations and the employees with the highest skills. It is shown in the paper excess supply and excess demand occupations. It is worth noting that the number of professionals, technicians and associate professionals and the persons with tertiary education has increased recently as well as their shares in total employment.
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The paper analyses youth unemployment in the Polish labour market and in the Tomaszów poviat particularly. The focus is on unemployment among school-leavers in the Tomaszów poviat between 1995 and 2001. The size, structure and causes of unemployment are discussed in the paper. Moreover measures combating unemployment among young people are also considered. The analysis shows that employment subsidies for employers are the most effective measure of combating youth unemployment. For a comparison the data for the Tomaszów poviat are confronted with the appropriate EU statistical data.
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Content available remote The Differentiation of Wages in Polish Economy in the Years 2005-2012
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The study characterized and analysed the differentiation of wages in Poland in the years 2005-2012. The analysis present changes of the level of wages in connection with such criteria as sections of economic activity, owner-ship sectors, occupations, sex, level of education and work experience. The analysis will make it possible to reflect on the main socio-economic reasons for wage differentiation, which may have a significant impact on the change of employment structure in Poland.
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The paper tackles problems connected with definition ol the concept of compensation of retail price hikes and there is made an attempt at classification of the compensation from view point of different criteria of division. The author proceeds from the assumption that determination of the phenomenon of the retail price hikes compensation is of gnosiologicals ignificance and constitutes a prerequisite of appropriate utilization of this phenomenon in the economic practice. It has been determined that the concept of the retail price hikes compensation should be understood as a process aiming at neutralization (cushioning) or full elimination of losses suffered by the population due to the above mentioned price hikes. Class ification of compensation has been carried out according to the following criteria: 1) according to compensation methods, 2) according to income brackets of the population, 3) from the view point of the compensation degree, 4) from the time viewpoint, 5) from the view point of the operation mechanism.
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Wydrukowano z dostarczonych Wydawnictwu UŁ gotowych materiałów
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The study assesses the level of socio-economic development in the voivodeship of Łódź in years 2000-2006 and compares it with the situation of the Polish economy. Data analysis allows us to conclude that GDP per capita and average gross wages in the voivodeship of Łódź are lower than in the country. Within the voivodeship, the living standard of the urban population is higher than in rural areas. The importance of the private sector for the voivod eship economy has been growing, but the sector’s structure is not favourable. Further intensification of structural adjustments is necessary, especially dynamised development of the services sector, restructuring of agriculture and more extensive diversification of the industrial structure. The adjustments are essential to boost enterprise effectiveness and competitiveness and to improve the position of the voivodeship in relation to other regions in the country.
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The article deals with the issue of unemployment among problem groups in the labour market. The aforementioned groups are characterised by a relatively high rate of unemployment, which translates into their being particularly prone to and dominant in unemployment. The aim of this article is to discuss the situation of the following groups in the labour market in Poland: the young unemployed below 25 years of age, unemployed women, individuals of poor education and those remaining unemployed over a long period of time. An attempt has been made to find out whether the situation of these groups has improved in the years 2005 and 2010 in relation to the year 2000. The article presents reasons for unemployment in each of the groups along with possibilities of improving their positions in the labour market through application of labour market activation measures. Differentiation has been carried out between demand and supply-oriented measures, as well as special programmes. The author also discusses the roles of the above mentioned instruments and emphasizes the importance of the Poviat Employment Agencies in raising employment opportunities and reducing unemployment among the problem groups.
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Content available remote Education of People Working in Poland Versus Other European Union Countries
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Education plays a special role in the construction of a modern knowledge-based economy. The increase in the educational level of the population is a chance for a faster social and economic development of any economy. The level of education also determines the quality of the individual and is important for their position in the labor market. The aim of this study is to show the role of education in shaping employment in Poland compared to other European Union countries in the years 2005–2014. The analysis makes it possible to positively assess qualitative changes in the structure of the employment stock in Poland. In the period under study, the share of employees with low educational attainment decreased in a fundamental way, while the share of employees with higher education increased significantly.
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This study characterized and evaluated the level and rate of change in wages and salaries in Poland in 2007-2012 and analysed the main macroeconomic determinants of their development. The analysis present changes to average wage, minimal wage and fair wage. Their level and rate of change are determined by macroeconomic factors, particularly economic growth processes, changes in productivity of labour, inflation rate and the situation on the labour market. A quite strong correlation can be observed between the rate of changes of the real GDP and the development of average nominal wages. Inflation processes affect the growth of nominal wages but they lead to a decrease in real wages. The growth of the unemployment rate affected the reduction of the growth rate of nominal wages. 297-316
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The article analyzes social effects of Inflation, which are of a negative character. An attempt has been also made by the authors to prove the necessity of activating the social services system and modifying principles of their functioning in conditions of inflationary processes taking place in Poland n the 80’s.
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The article is an attempt at evaluation of the social perception of principles according to which services are distributed. Its main aim was to obtain an answer to the question whether the solutions in the field of pricing policy (costs covered by individuals) applied in practice fid social acceptance and what postulates were put forward to improve it . The article is based on questionnaire surveys concerning mechanisms adopted in distribution of goods and services in four main spheres of social consumption i.e. health care, recreation, child care and education, and culture. The main research problems included collecting information about the social opinion on: scope of individual contributions in distribution of services, postulated level of such contributions for different goods and services, and the problem of uniform or differentiated contributions. The empirical materials allowed to formulate more general socially accepted solutions in the sphere of distribution of such goods and services.
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