The article contains synthesis of transformation of socio-economic behaviour among rural population in Las Huastecas region in the last years of XX century and the first years of XXI century, based on the field studies conducted in rural communities in 1985, 2001 and 2006 by geographers from Warsaw University and Autonomous University of the State of Mexico. The first part concern the factors of changes of living conditions and economic activity in the Mexican rural areas. The second one presents the transformation of spatial mobility of rural inhabitants and the last one deals with diversification of socio-economic activities in Las Huastecas - initiatives related to animal production, introduction of new crops, development of handicrafts and petty trade as well as small scale tourism. Las Huastecas region seems to maintain its peripheral character, but more active attitudes of social actors can be seen as a premise for the regions future transformation. The main challenges for the local authorities are related with the exodus of young people to the big cities, accelerated by better education and migrant's network.