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EN
Freedom for every human being is what allows him to behave and act as a person, and simultaneously it is in the centre of his life. It makes up his asylum, mysteries, and heart at the same time, and also is the sense of values professed by him and the whole sense of his life. Due to it, it also becomes one of more important and key problems of every man irrespective of how he approaches the issue of freedom and in what way he perceives it. Professor Słomski believes that although personalism is philosophy based on man, it unceasingly also draws from different currents which help to perceive man in a decidedly wider context. Due to it one can also assume that practically every philosophy which considers individuals can be treated as personalistic, even if this current will be Marxism. Such an approach caused that also in Professor Słomski’s philosophy there are present references to Marxism and existentialism, which are collated with Christian personalism.
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One of the practical perspectives of personalism is economic personalism which is characterized, first of all, by adopting rules binding economy to human needs, expectations and capabilities. As a result, economy also becomes a completely different, decidedly more friendly field which is determined by several new conditions. With the help of personalism the individual is able to set his goals, define himself, his needs and establish tasks which he should place.. The feeling of exceptionality, uniqueness, and above all, the role which the given individual plays in the whole surrounding reality is also important here. Additionally, it allows to define characteristic features for the individual, evaluating his strengths and weaknesses, and it also allows to define the way one can improve himself and his achievements as well as develop incessantly and constantly strive for perfection. The fact that the individual is a connection between the material and immaterial world in personalism causes that he can feel exceptionally, he can realize that he is responsible both for himself and the others. Personalism also brings to our attention the necessity of overcoming our own fears against excessive integration and calls not to give our whole independence and integrality for the benefit of the community. It turns out that if the individual gives himself up, his independence and freedom of choice, he might bear numerous consequences which can influence his way of perception of reality, himself and his role in the world.
EN
According to professor Słomski, personalism is a juxtaposition of many currents which simultaneously concern human being in every way, the meaning in the world around him, and relation with the surroundings. This is a certain kind of an innovatory approach because so far it was commonly believed that not every current concerning human being can be discussed in the context of personalism and not each of them adjusts to it. Additionally, Professor Słomski has emphasized in this way that personalism can be treated as one of the components of Christian philosophy and can determine its range. Moreover, for Wojciech Słomski all the premises creating contemporary personalism can be a cause for which it can be treated as a comprehensive, very essential philosophical system which a key task is a desire to get an answer to urgent questions and social issues appearing in the present world. The exceptionality of professor Słomski’s conception is contained, first of all, in the way of perception of personalism as a tool which makes possible getting the answer to questions appearing contemporarily. It happens so mainly because along with the civilization progress and social development, and undergoing global tendencies, social problems gain a completely new dimension which practically has not existed so far.
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Content available Employee Subjectivity as a Key Value in Management
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People, with their knowledge and potential, are undoubtedly the most important part in any organisation because, thanks to them, it might accomplish its goals, gain a competitive advantage and achieve success on the market. That is why each organisation should hire the most appropriate employees and provide working conditions that enable them to unleash their potential for the company’s benefit. The fundamental value for creating a good work environment is employees’ subjectivity, which can be perceived in two ways. The basic level of honouring a person’s subjectivity is respecting human rights and the employee’s dignity in mutual relations. The higher level, though, is to give people a certain amount of autonomy and responsibility in their workplace. The aim of this paper is to identify and analyse interdisciplinary concepts that managers can use in order to ensure that people are given the respect they deserve.
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The article discusses the issue of personalistic human capital management. The argument is based on a new approach to the employee within an organisation, as well as the role of the subjective determinants of employee activity in the effective attainment of strategic goals. The essence of the personalistic approach to human capital within an organisation is presented through the prism of personalism, mainly the personalistic concept developed by K. Wojtyła (later John Paul II), emphasising the autonomous value of human being as a person. Against such a backdrop, it is shown that the application of the personalistic approach to human capital requires resolving dilemmas associated with the recognition of both subjective and economic dimensions of actions. The outlined bi-directionality in the approach to a human being in the modern organisation greatly complicates the discussion about the personalistic perspective of the human being within an organisation. However, the author points to basic conditions of the personalistic human capital management in an organisation. Pro-social strengthening of organisational culture and the introduction of pro-social orientation into strategic activities, as well as axiological targeting of managers’ attitudes are necessary. These factors condition the presence of a personalistic norm in the long-term achievement of economic efficiency based on a fully subjective management of the organisation’s human capital.
Studia Ełckie
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2018
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tom 20
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nr 3
293-307
EN
social life is an unquestionable fact, although from a sociological point of view, it is a universal phenomenon. The sources pertaining to its genesis are various. Plato spoke of the organic entity of social life. Aristotle dis-cussed human needs in the social development of man. Jean-Jacques Rousseau referred to the convention hypothesis. Baruch Spinoza considered collective human actions as an expression of the general will of the Absolute. Christian philosophy sees social life as a natural and primary condition of the human being. In view of that, from the perspective of Christian personalistic philosophy, man makes up a part of the universum, living in the specified environment to which he is related in various ways. Through his psychophysical structure, man is out of his nature directed towards social life and consequently, he seeks contact with the other persons in the society. Therefore, Karol Wojtyła emphasizes the indispensability of social life in terms of material and biological needs of the human being and the intersubjective experiences by sharing thoughts, values and moral relations.
EN
Teaching is directed to integral human development. The moral sphere has a special place in the implementation of the educational process. Bringing up to values highlights above all the characteristics that constitute the person and thus: the body, freedom, truth and summarising dignity. Showing the value of the personal dignity of every human being, and in fact leading the student to place where they discover it, at the same time, we show that the man is a dynamic being. On one hand, metaphysically they "are" a person from the moment of their existence, and on the other hand – axiologically – they become a person in the way of deeds. Educational activity is an important factor (it is often the beginning) to discover this important mystery of a man – who the person is, what they are required to in moral terms. To help discover a person in a person – it is the responsibility and the task educators are qualified for.
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The personalistic concept of man, especially the one based on the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas, underscores the full autonomy of the human person, his freedom, the gradual discovery of the truth and good, and choices in accord with this cognition. The key issue in Stefan Wyszyński’s personalism is the integral vision of the human person. This personalism is a system of upbringing that respects the nature and value of man who ‘humanizes’ the world and expresses himself while constantly evolving. He gives a personal, social and dynamic character to the community in which he functions. He has a right to be brought up in keeping with his nature and ultimate destiny.
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Human-related issues are the objected personalism. One of the current problems contemporarily recognized and widely known is data protection. The article aims to present a mutual connection between legal regulations of data protection, taking under consideration GDPR, and personalism. The conclusion is that there are many elements in legal regulations that justify the conviction that the protection of personal data can be seen as an expression of personalism.
EN
In modern economic theories, human qualities are treated as autonomous production factors, which are called “human capital”. However, these theories provide no description of the relationship between human capital and the man who is its “bearer”, nor an explanation of the formation process of that capital. In the thesis, the author tries to justify it as follows: human qualities, including knowledge and skills, are an integral part of a human being, that is, they are involved in every human act. It is, therefore, wrong to analyse their economic significance in isolation from the whole structure of human activity. Through his or her action, man discovers the potential in things and relationships in the form of the possibility of using them for a particular purpose. Capital is thus realized by the human potential of things that form a system for transforming the world. In the first part of the article, a general description of human capital will be provided. In the second part, it will be criticized, while in the third part, there will be an attempt to show the proper relationship between man and capital from the perspective of personalism.
EN
Considering world’s social and ethical problems, it is unavoidable to omit the area of medical issues in which biological and therapeutic revolution took place. Pope John Paul II points out indirectly that doctor–patient relationship should be held with the respect for ethical and legal requirements because of human dignity, which is the principle, cause, goal and sense of all reality. In order to arrange the interrelation between the doctor and the patient in an appropriate way, it is necessary to build bonds between them. Those bonds create patient’s and doctor’s participation in the process of medical treatment. The aim of this article is to present some aspects of Personalism by John Paul II (social doctrine of the Church) in patient–doctor relationship. The main reference point for considering aspects of patient–doctor relationship is the communitarian dimension of human being as a person in Karol Wojtyła’s philosophy.
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The article presents the academic profile of the so-called School of Padua (Scuola Padovana) against the background of general information about the Italian pedagogical thought and its diverse achievements in various universities. The basis of the presentation is the contribution to the pedagogical sciences made by the authors of a monographic issue of the “Rassegna di Pedagogia” journal, which is the oldest pedagogical journal in the world, founded in 1941 by Professor Giuseppe Flores d’Arcais, the creator and animator of personalist pedagogy in Padua (pedagogia della persona). In the light of works published in the “Rassegna...”, the proposal inspired by the Italian Renaissance tradition and European humanism is both a continuation of research studies conducted in this environment and a result of inspiration drawn from outside the Italian intellectual circles. The authors refer to the French personalist thought, to the German hermeneutics and philosophy of Bildung and to the Polish neo-Marxist humanism open to the sociohistorical horizons of thinking about the man and his alternative potentiality. This last area of mutually inspiring collaboration is connected with Professor Bogdan Suchodolski’s long academic presence in Padua. Professor Suchodolski was awarded an honorary doctorate at the University of Padua in 1983; it was the first such title awarded by this institution to a foreign scholar in the field of education. In addition to general theoretical foundations of personalism, the account of achievements discussed in the “Rassegna...” includes also original areas of study on the permanent presence of classical philosophical and pedagogical thought and on the pedagogy of literature and children and youth readership. The research circles of Padua pedagogy – as documented in the text – consistently apply the principle of continuity in the implementation of the research programme and the principle of dialogue and openness as well as cooperation with cultural ideas other than their own. Padua personalism still achieves new paradigms; it becomes a dynamic concept combining respect for the roots with a creative mobility of thought.
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Although the inclusion of the subjectivity of the individual seems to be the principle of education today, the term „subjectivity” is understood in different ways, which gives rise to contradictory models of education. It happens so in the case of influential and contrary models of subjectivity, presented by the widely understood antipedagogy and Catholic personalism, which ascribe a strong connotation to it. The analysis of this problem in this article will determine the reflection on the understanding of subjectivity and the characteristics of postmodernity in this context. The aim of this article is to demonstrate that personalism not only protects the subjectivity of the pupil but also does not give up education as it happens in antipedagogy. The role of personalistic education is, in no case, to underestimate the subjectivity of young people but to support the process of preferences and to affirm their proper hierarchy of values, without which their fullness of humanity will not materialize.
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Content available Uczestnictwo jako personalistyczna wartość
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EN
Any person may participate in meetings, classes, academic, society, Church, family or Fatherland’s life. In herein article we will hold on reflection about participation as relevant feature of human being in the spirit of Karol Wojtyła. The present article concentrates on the aspect of correlation between act and person consequent to the fact that deeds are fulfilled by people and “mutually with other” people. That is a consequence of the fact that the person exists “mutually with other” people. The characteristic of community, co-participation is stamped on human’s existence. Fulfilling deeds by the person himself forms a fundamental value. Cardinal K. Wojtyła terms it as “Personalistic value labor”. That value is different than every kind of moral values which are fulfilled labor values and they eventuate from reference to norm. Participation doesn’t mean only varied forms of reference of a person to other people or unit to society but it also means essentials of these forms which are deeply embedded in person. Acting “mutually with others” is convenient for transcendence and integration of person in labor, when the person chooses the same as others and chooses because others choose. Participation in case of acting with others comprises and expresses self – determination of the person, hence it is in a way a more complete image. However there are possible certain forms of constriction or even crossing out of participation. Such situation is possible mostly by lack of participation descended from entity and principal of action or throughout making participation impossible derived from extraneous of person and consequent to the wrong structure of acting community. First obstacle in a way to participation is called individualism and the second is called totalism. Despite efflux of time individualism and totalism are one of the utmost threats to our society and it begins from improper understanding of participation.
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Słomski defining philosophy of the XXIst century recognizes that in order to understand it, it is necessary to define how those threats, resulted first of all from the technological progress and transformations caused by this progress, were defined earlier. Personalism in Słomski’s perspective is the compilation of various currents which deal with the individual and his relations with surroundings, and also these ones which say about the individual in the wider context. However, the key currents which made the largest impression on him are as follows: Christian thought, Marxism and existentialism. Słomski has drawn the biggest inspiration simply from them, and believed thereby that the whole truth was contained in those currents. The truth on how the individual should be perceived contemporarily and with what problems is supposed to cope, and thereby he is able to define which factors determine the individual and influence his situation, worldview, and the system of values which he is guided by in his life. According to Professor Słomski, the present personalism can be treated as a certain kind of a comprehensive philosophical system. However, its the most important task and aim is an attempt to give an answer to appearing more and more often new social problems on which one using philosophy, ethics or other sciences dealing with such issues so far cannot get the answer. It happens so mainly because along with the civilization progress, and the social development and undergoing global tendencies, social problems gain a completely new dimension which practically has not existed so far.
PL
Pope John Paul II in his teaching on marriage had not limited the issue only to the principle that matrimonial consent makes marriage, but he put a real challenge in front of the canonists stating that the proper understanding of the consent may not be reduced to a certain historical patterns, but must be developed on the basis of anthropological and legal sciences. The article discusses four issues. Firstly, the author engages in the issue of impoverishment of ius in corpus as an essential element of the contract of marriage. Then, she sketches the view of the Second Vatican Council on matrimonial consent as a mutual gift of one person to another. Subsequently, the author deals with the influence of personalism on the legal dimension of marriage. Finally, she presents the personalistic criteria in the Magisterium of John Paul II and its immediate legal dimension.
EN
Christian personalism accepts, first of all, the principles of belief and professes the philosophy which is compatible with that belief. Human life is not possible without a community, i.e., in total isolation, however, one cannot also profess here another extreme view that reputedly man cannot find fulfilment without these relations, and what follows it, his life does not have to limit only to living with others, and also it does not restrict to functioning in the community. Since it turns out that both individualism and a personal life are equally essential here. One should also care about the personal life which not always has to be connected with co-existence with different individuals. However, for this view is essential to find suitable centering for both these attitudes and adopting this one which allows to develop fully. It is interesting that part of the experts on the subject who also try to make characteristics of the theoretical model believe that personalism in Mounier’s perspective cannot be perceived for Christian personalism, however, it assumes that Christianity is one of these elements which are indispensable to improve a social life.
EN
The article presents the academic profile of the so-called School of Padua (Scuola Padovana) against the background of general information about the Italian pedagogical thought and its diverse achievements in various universities. The basis of the presentation is the contribution to the pedagogical sciences made by the authors of a monographic issue of the “Rassegna di Pedagogia” journal, which is the oldest pedagogical journal in the world, founded in 1941 by Professor Giuseppe Flores d’Arcais, the creator and animator of personalist pedagogy in Padua (pedagogia della persona). In the light of works published in the “Rassegna...”, the proposal inspired by the Italian Renaissance tradition and European humanism is both a continuation of research studies conducted in this environment and a result of inspiration drawn from outside the Italian intellectual circles. The authors refer to the French personalist thought, to the German hermeneutics and philosophy of Bildung and to the Polish neo-Marxist humanism open to the sociohistorical horizons of thinking about the man and his alternative potentiality. This last area of mutually inspiring collaboration is connected with Professor Bogdan Suchodolski’s long academic presence in Padua. Professor Suchodolski was awarded an honorary doctorate at the University of Padua in 1983; it was the first such title awarded by this institution to a foreign scholar in the field of education. In addition to general theoretical foundations of personalism, the account of achievements discussed in the “Rassegna...” includes also original areas of study on the permanent presence of classical philosophical and pedagogical thought and on the pedagogy of literature and children and youth readership. The research circles of Padua pedagogy – as documented in the text – consistently apply the principle of continuity in the implementation of the research programme and the principle of dialogue and openness as well as cooperation with cultural ideas other than their own. Padua personalism still achieves new paradigms; it becomes a dynamic concept combining respect for the roots with a creative mobility of thought.
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One of John Paul II’s remarkable innovations was his embrace of the question of “the meaning of life.” The question of “the meaning of life” was never asked before the 19th century, and it was slow to be integrated into Catholic discourse. When the question of life’s meaning emerged, it effectively replaced a prior question, about the purpose or telos of life, with a very different set of theoretical assumptions. From the traditional perspective, the question of life’s meaning is highly suspicious, and even Pope John Paul II’s unparalleled embrace of the question confirms that he framed his personalism in terms of the older question of life’s purpose or telos.
EN
The turn of the 20th century saw the origination of a tradition of analysing the nature of values (what is precious and good), i.e. what is value, what is its character? A postulate that explained the ontic status of values, the sources and mechanisms of origination of value, criteria of valuation, classification of values and – in a sociological meaning – the social functioning in culture and individual and social preferences of their accomplishment – all of this was an important issue. Wilhelm Windelband and Heinrich Rickert propagated the concept of axiology. Axiology won its renown thanks to the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl which – through the axiology of Max Scheler and Nicolai Hartmann, Dietrich von Hildebrand – breaks with the scientific anthropological vision of Auguste Comte. Therefore, when referring to phenomenology, Karol Wojtyła creates “adequate anthropology”. This multi-aspect Thomistic-phenomenological presentation of the human being by Karol Wojtyła has a significant axiological dimension for the development of spiritual life in the ethical personalism of Karol Wojtyła. This is the basis which we will use to ask the following question in this study: how does axiology influence the ethical and moral behaviour of a human being?
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