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EN
All of the present methods for calibration and monitoring of time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) scanner detectors utilize radioactive isotopes, such as 22Na or 68Ge, which are placed or rotate inside the scanner. In this article, we describe a novel method based on the cosmic rays application to the PET calibration and monitoring methods. The concept allows to overcome many of the drawbacks of the present methods and it is well suited for newly developed TOF-PET scanners with a large longitudinal field of view. The method enables also the monitoring of the quality of the scintillator materials and in general allows for the continuous quality assurance of the PET detector performance.
2
Content available remote Nonextensive thermal sources of cosmic rays
100%
Open Physics
|
2010
|
tom 8
|
nr 5
726-736
EN
The energy spectrum of cosmic rays exhibits power-like behavior with a very characteristic ‘knee’ structure. We consider a possibility that such a spectrum could be generated by some specific nonstatistical temperature fluctuations in the source of cosmic rays with the ‘knee’ structure reflecting an abrupt change of the pattern of such fluctuations. This would result in a generalized nonextensive statistical model for the production of cosmic rays. The possible physical mechanisms leading to these effects are discussed together with the resulting chemical composition of the cosmic rays, which follows the experimentally observed abundance of nuclei.
3
Content available remote Significance of the second dip in the ultra-high energy cosmic ray spectrum
80%
Open Physics
|
2007
|
tom 5
|
nr 4
528-538
EN
A new feature in the spectrum of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) has been announced in the paper by Berezinsky, Gazizov and Kachelrieβ. The ratio of the solution of the exact transport equation to its solution in the continuous energy loss limit shows intriguing features which, according to the Authors, are related to the very nature of the energy loss processes of UHECR: the very sharp second dip predicted at 6.3 × 1019 eV can be used as an energy calibration point and also as the UHECR mass indicator for big future cosmic ray experiments. In the present paper we would like to advocate that this statement is an overinterpretation. The second dip is a result of an inappropriate approximation used, and thus it cannot help to understand the nature of UHECR in any way.
4
80%
EN
The cosmic ray emulsion chamber community has reported several unusual phenomena which are also relevant to experiments at the current high-energy accelerators, in particular the Fermilab Tevatron Collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A summary of the ”Cosmic Rays at Mountain Altitude” workshop held at Plock (Poland, September 2010) is given.
5
Content available remote Ionization of the earth's atmosphere by solar and galactic cosmic rays
80%
EN
A brief review of the research of atmospheric effects of cosmic rays is presented. Numerical models are discussed, that are capable to compute the cosmic ray induced ionization at a given location and time. Intercomparison of the models, as well as comparison with fragmentary direct measurements of the atmospheric ionization, validates their applicability for the entire atmosphere and the whole range of the solar activity level variations. The effect of sporadic solar energetic particle events is shown to be limited on the global scale, even for the most severe event, but can be very strong locally in polar regions, affecting the physical-chemical properties of the upper atmosphere, especially at high altitudes. Thus, a new methodology is presented to study cosmic ray induced ionization of the atmosphere in full detail using realistic numerical models calibrated to direct observations.
EN
The paper presents method for thermal generation reduction in low level light applications, especially where measured phenomena have random character. The algorithm was developed basing on cosmic ray measurements. The main parts of the system are: Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM), front-end ASIC for amplifying and shaping signals. SiPM is a very sensitive device which can detect single photons. Comparing to a standard photomultiplier SiPM has a compact size, low operating voltage and it is immune to an electromagnetic field. Thermally generated signals are disadvantage of SiPM. This paper presents the measurement method to reduce influence of thermal generation.
EN
Over the last two decades, models of the Earth’s magnetospheric magnetic field have been continuously improved to describe more precisely the different magnetospheric current systems (magnetopause current, symmetric and partial ring currents, tail currents and field aligned currents). In this paper we compare the different Tsyganenko models and the Alexeev and Feldstein model in the context of cosmic ray physics. We compare the vertical cutoff rigidity and asymptotic direction of vertical incidence obtained with these models for the January 20, 2005, ground level enhancement and for the big magnetic storm of April 6, 2000. For the event of January 20, 2005, we study the impact of the differences in asymptotic direction obtained with the models on the radiation dose computation at aircraft altitude. For the magnetic storm of April 6, 2000, we discuss the importance of the different magnetospheric current systems in causing cutoff rigidity variations. Finally we summarise the advantages and drawbacks of the different models in the context of space weather.
8
60%
EN
This paper elaborates on gamma rays attenuation in ordinary chondrites. Highly penetrating gamma radiation is emitted as a result of inelastic collisions of ultra-high energy cosmic particles with bulk matter, such as spacecraft hulls. Resources mined from Solar System small bodies may present an alternative construction material for spacecraft cosmic rays shields, which explains research on ionizing radiation attenuation in meteorites. A custom-made, shielded research workstation was constructed to analyse ionizing radiation absorption in pulverized materials. Using the workstation, gamma rays attenuation experiment was performed on pulverized ordinary chondrite – a meteorite originating from S-type asteroid. The experiment resulted in obtaining gamma ray mass attenuation coefficient of S-type chondritic asteroid matter. Obtained results were analysed and final conclusions were formulated. Per unit mass, ordinary chondrites exhibit better gamma rays attenuation properties than any radiation shielding material contemporarily used in astronautics.
PL
W niniejszej pracy poruszono zagadnienie pochłaniania promieniowania gamma w materiale budującym meteoryty należące do grupy chondrytów zwyczajnych, które pochodzą z planetoid typu S. Wysoce przenikliwe promieniowanie gamma powstaje w przestrzeni kosmicznej m.in. jako efekt oddziaływania pierwotnego promieniowania kosmicznego z ośrodkami materialnymi. Materiał pozyskany z małych ciał Układu Słonecznego może stanowić alternatywny budulec ciężkich osłon radiacyjnych statków kosmicznych, co uzasadnia prowadzenie badań nad pochłanianiem promieniowania jonizującego w meteorytach. Opisano tu eksperyment, do celów którego wykonano autorskiej konstrukcji stanowisko badawcze do analizy pochłaniania promieniowania jonizującego w materiałach sypkich. Przy pomocy tego stanowiska, wykorzystując radioaktywny izotop 60Co, określono masowy współczynnik absorbcji promieniowania gamma w sproszkowanym chondrycie zwyczajnym, a otrzymany wynik porównano z wartością obliczoną teoretycznie. W pracy przeprowadzono szczegółową analizę uzyskanych wyników i sformułowano wnioski płynące z przeprowadzonego eksperymentu. Na jednostkę masy, chondryty zwyczajne lepiej osłabiają promieniowanie gamma niż jakiekolwiek materiały osłonowe stosowane obecnie w astronautyce.
9
Content available Radiation chemistry in exploration of Mars
60%
EN
Problems of exploration of Mars are seldom connected with radiation research. Improvements in such approach, more and more visible, are reported in this paper, written by the present author working on prebiotic chemistry and origins of life on Earth. Objects on Mars subjected to radiation are very different from those on Earth. Density of the Martian atmosphere is by two orders smaller than over Earth and does not protect the surface of Mars from ionizing radiations, contrary to the case of Earth, shielded by the equivalent of ca. 3 meters of concrete. High energy protons from the Sun are diverted magnetically around Earth, and Mars is deprived of that protection. The radiolysis of martian "air" (95.3% of carbon dioxide) starts with the formation of CO2 +, whereas the primary product over Earth is N2 + ionradical. The lack of water vapor over Mars prevents the formation of many secondary products. The important feature of Martian regolith is the possibility of the presence of hydrated minerals, which could have been formed milliards years ago, when (probably) water was present on Mars. The interface of the atmosphere and the regolith can be the site of many chemical reactions, induced also by intensive UV, which includes part of the vacuum UV. Minerals like sodalite, discovered on Mars can contribute as reagents in many reactions. Conclusions are dedicated to questions of the live organisms connected with exploration of Mars; from microorganisms, comparatively resistant to ionizing radiation, to human beings, considered not to be fit to manned flight, survival on Mars and return to Earth. Pharmaceuticals proposed as radiobiological protection cannot improve the situation. Exploration over the distance of millions of kilometers performed successfully without presence of man, withstands more easily the presence of ionizing radiation.
10
Content available remote Tachyonic field theory and neutrino mass running
60%
Open Physics
|
2012
|
tom 10
|
nr 4
749-762
EN
In this paper three things are done. (i) We investigate the analogues of Cerenkov radiation for the decay of a superluminal neutrino and calculate the Cerenkov angles for the emission of a photon through a W loop, and for a collinear electron-positron pair, assuming the tachyonic dispersion relation for the superluminal neutrino. The decay rate of a freely propagating neutrino is found to depend on the shape of the assumed dispersion relation, and is found to decrease with decreasing tachyonic mass of the neutrino. (ii)We discuss a few properties of the tachyonic Dirac equation (symmetries and plane-wave solutions), which may be relevant for the description of superluminal neutrinos seen by the OPERA experiment, and discuss the calculation of the tachyonic propagator. (iii) In the absence of a commonly accepted tachyonic field theory, and in view of an apparent “running” of the observed neutrino mass with the energy, we write down a model Lagrangian, which describes a Yukawa-type interaction of a neutrino coupling to a scalar background field via a scalar-minus-pseudoscalar interaction. This constitutes an extension of the standard model. If the interaction is strong, then it leads to a substantial renormalization-group “running” of the neutrino mass and could potentially explain the experimental observations.
11
Content available remote Propagation of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays in Extragalactic Magnetic Fields
60%
Open Physics
|
2004
|
tom 2
|
nr 2
277-299
EN
In this paper we will discuss the problem of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) and show that the idea of a Single Source Model established by Erlykin and Wolfendale (1997) to explain the features seen in cosmic ray energy spectra around the 1015 eV region can be successfully applied also for the much higher energies. The propagation of UHECR (of energies higher than 1019 eV) in extragalactic magnetic fields can no longer be described as a random walk (diffusion) process and the transition to rectilinear propagation gives a possible explanation for the so-called Greisen-Zatzepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cut-off which still remains an open question after almost 40 years. A transient “single source” located at a particular distance and producing UHECR for a finite time is the proposed solution.
PL
W pracy zostały scharakteryzowane źródła zakłóceń występujące podczas pomiarów widm Ramana w warunkach polowych oraz sposoby redukcji ich wpływu na jakość rejestrowanych widm. Zaprezentowano wpływ czasu integracji na jakość rejestrowanych widm w przypadkach, gdy szumy własne spektrometru mają składową typu 1/f, dominującą w zakresie małych częstotliwości. Przedstawiono także wyniki uzyskane podczas pomiarów z detekcją synchroniczną, stosowaną w przenośnych spektrometrach Ramana, w pomiarach przy silnym oświetleniu zewnętrznym.
EN
Raman spectrometers are devices which allow immediate and contactless identification of the examined substances. Detection is possible without any sample preparation, even from a distance or via a transparent package, like glass or plastic vials. These features make the Raman spectra measurement technique popular. Therefore it requires continuous development to get better results. Chemicals detection is based on comparison of a registered Raman spectrum with the reference spectra stored in a database. The algorithm which compares the spectra indicates the substances (one or even a few) having the most similar (according to the applied criterion) spectrum to the Raman spectrum of the investigated chemical. The reference database is created in a laboratory by using precise Raman Spectrometers of high resolution and low noise level. Field measurements of the Raman spectra are usually made by a less accurate device and suffer from external interferences. Therefore an additional procedure for noise and interference dumping is necessary. The paper outlines the sources of noise and interference contaminating Raman spectra. The selected methods for their suppression are discussed. The advantage of synchronous detection measurements at ambient light is shown. Finally, the impact of the time integration on the spectra quality, when inherent noise of a spectrometer has a dominant 1/f component at low frequency range is described.
13
Content available remote Promieniowanie kosmiczne – w poszukiwaniu nieoczekiwanego
51%
PL
Historia badań promieniowania kosmicznego od samego początku pełna jest niespodziewanych odkryć, które znacząco odmieniały zastane poglądy na świat. Sama koncepcja, że z kosmosu przychodzi do nas jakieś promieniowanie, wydawała się absurdalna, a co najmniej nieuzasadniona. Nikt nie spodziewał się tak olbrzymich energii cząstek, nikt „nie zamawiał” też mionów, nikt nie podejrzewał, że promieniowanie kosmiczne będzie docierało do powierzchni Ziemi w kaskadach liczących ponad miliardy pojedynczych cząstek na raz. Ale najdziwniejsze jest to, że jednak istnieli fizycy, którzy mieli tak niepoważne idee to właśnie dzięki nim dziś wiemy to, co wiemy. A w fizyce promieniowania kosmicznego jest jeszcze sporo zagadek czekających na rozwiązanie i wiele zupełnie niespodziewanych odkryć.
EN
From the very beginning, the history of cosmic rays research has been full of unexpected discoveries that have significantly changed the prevailing view of the world. he very idea that some kind of radiation was coming to us from outer space seemed ridiculous, to say the least, unjustified. No one expected such enormous particle energies, no one also “ordered” muons, no one suspected that cosmic rays would come to the earth’s surface in cascades of more than billions of individual particles at the same time. But the strangest thing is that there must nevertheless have been physicists who had such frivolous ideas, and it is thanks to them that we know what we know. And in cosmic ray physics there are still many enigmas waiting to be solved and many discoveries to be made, discoveries that are absolutely unexpected.
14
Content available remote Gwiazda Polski – ambitny projekt z udziałem Wolfkego
51%
PL
Artykuł poświęcony jest historii zdobywania i badań stratosfery, które często przebiegały nad wyraz dramatycznie. Na tym tle pokazany jest niezwykle ambitny projekt badań, którym kierował profesor Mieczysław Wolfke, a któremu miała służyć Gwiazda Polski - największy stratostat (balon stratosferyczny) świata.
EN
The article is devoted to the history of the conquest and research of the stratosphere, which was o en extremely dramatic. Against the background of this story, an extremely ambitious research project led by Professor Mieczysław Wolfke, and which was to be served by the Star of Poland – the world’s largest stratostat is shown.
EN
Artificial neural network modelling has proven incredibly effective in an impressively wide range of scientific disciplines. The combination of these various methods with wavelet decomposition signal processing has similarly proven to be a powerful development for statistical forecasting of a number of environmental processes. Space weather modelling and prediction has often been applied to forecasting of solar activity and that of the planetary magnetic field. However, prediction of cosmic ray impulses has seen little development in the context of neural network modelling. In the present study, a combination of wavelet neural networks was adapted from previous research in order to predict daily average values of cosmic ray impulses 30 days in advance. Additional comparison of both neural network and linear regression modelling with and without wavelet decomposition was conducted for further demonstration of increased accuracy with wavelet neural networks in a simple input-output fitting model.
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