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Content available remote Carl Schmitt mezi vědou a proroctvím
This article sets out the fundamental intellectual starting points of Carl Schmitt. It is concerned chiefly with his conception of law, the main features of his political philosophy, and his attitude to liberalism, parliamentarism, democracy, and the Nazi dictatorship. It also takes into account the way in which he used historical arguments to support his ideas. Particular attention is paid to the concept of the political, which Schmitt considered an independent sphere of human existence, one based on diff erentiating between friend and foe, an act performed by the wielder of sovereign political power. It is precisely the question of power and, linked to it, sovereign decision, which form the core of politics. Ethical or economic criteria must not enter this sphere. The natural framework in which the political is applied is the State, which appears outwardly in the sphere of foreign policy. In domestic policy the State is based on the identity of the ruler(s) and the ruled. In the twentieth century, however, according to Schmitt, this conception of politics and the State underwent a crisis with serious consequences, which lay either in the invasion of universalist tendencies undermining the special character of the State or in the subordination of politics (as the pure exercise of power) to particular interests, backroom deals, and compromises.
Článek vytyčuje základní intelektuální východiska Carla Schmitta. Zabývá se především jeho koncepcí práva, hlavními rysy politické filosofie a jeho přístupem k liberalismu, parlamentarismu, demokracii a nacistické diktatuře. Bere také v potaz, jak k podepření svých tezí využíval historických argumentů. Zvláštní pozornost je věnována pojmu politično, které Schmitt pokládal za nezávislou sféru lidské existence, založenou na rozlišování přátel a nepřátel, prostřednictvím suverénního rozhodnutí držitele politické moci. A právě otázky moci a s tím spojených mocenských rozhodnutí, formují podstatu politiky. Etická a ekonomická kritéria nemusí do této sféry vůbec vstoupit. Přirozeným rámcem, kde je politično aplikováno, je stát, který se vnějškově vymezuje ve sféře zahraniční politiky. V domácí politice je stát založen na identitě vládce (vládců) a ovládaných. Podle Schmitta však ve dvacátém století prošla koncepce politiky a státu krizí se zásadními dopady, spočívající buď na invazi univerzalistických tendencí, které podemílají zvláštní charakter státu, nebo podřízení politiky (jako čistého uplatňování moci) partikulárním zájmům, zákulisním dohodám a kompromisům.
The paper was presented in Poznań on 23 April 2009 during an open seminar dedicated to a phenomenon of prophetism in the Middle Ages. The subject of the lecture is medieval pope prophecies Genus nequam, their genesis, their rhetoric and conversions which they underwent in the Middle ages. The archetype of prophecies Genus nequam well-known in the West were Byzantine Oracula Leonis. They belong to the so-called basileiographeion, i.e. medieval pamphlets, directed against ruling Byzantine emperors. The motive of a she-bear and an emperor rising from the dead in Oracula Leonis gave inspiration to obscure authors of Genus nequam. The she-bear was associated with the pope Nicholas III, coming from a powerful Roman family Orsini and famous for his nepotism. The resurrected emperor from Oracula Leonis served as an example of an ideal pope who would reform church. A negative character of a man with a sickle and a rose noticeable in Byzantine prophecies was modified so as to point to the pope Celestine V (1294). Circles of radical supporters of church reform were glad of his appointment and hoped for renewal. After his rapid resignation the prophecies started announcing another pope, who would continue the interrupted mission of Celestine V. Genus nequam are the example of an interesting medieval collection of symbols and figures, which may convey specific religious and political information.
This article is focused on the criticism of the prophecies presented by Wojciech Bystrzonowski, an encyclopaedist and populariser of science, in his work Informacya matematyczna [Mathematical Information] (1743, 1749). The author discusses prophecies of sorcerers, physiognomy, palmistry, prophetic dreams and astrological predictions. He examines the cases of magical practices combined with religious beliefs, which he regards as dangerous manifestations of superstition. He also demonstrates that fortune-telling cannot be compatible with faith or the fundamental principles of rational reasoning. Furthermore, he emphasizes that for a critical evaluation of such predictions, the Jesuit rules for the discernment of spirits can be applied. The issues addressed in Bystrzonowski’s work are characteristic of the atmosphere of the intellectual change that took place in late Baroque and early Enlightenment.
The author conducts an exegetical and theological analysis of the texts of Is 50,4-9; 52,13-53,12; Zc 12,10 and 13,7, and Ps. 22,2-22. In this analysis he wants to answer three questions: what kind of person is the Messiah as described in the texts analysed: what does the salutary function of the protagonist of those prophecies consist in: and is there any influence of those Old Testament texts on the descriptions of Christ’s passion in the gospels. The exegesis of the mentioned texts allows the author to state, that God’s Servant, the Messiah, will be a teacher and a charismatist, but his proper mission will consist in subjecting himself to the will of the redeeming God who through His Servant’s poverty, suffering, loneliness and death as well as through the humiliation even after death, is going to redeem all the mankind. Hence the essence of the Servant’s salutary function consists in physical and moral suffering and in giving his life as a propitiatory sacrifice for human sins. The Servant will accept his mission voluntarily. Being the oblation, he will at the same time have the function of an advocate. And God will accept his sacrifice, forgiving the sin and excusing those who are guity. Old Testament quotations in the gospels show that the evangelists knew the Old Testament prophecies and they referred some of them directly to Christ, but it cannot be stated, that those prophecies had some distinct influence on the formulation of the descriptions of Christ’s passion.
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