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PL
W pracy omówiono występowanie mikotoksyn na różnych etapach produkcji piwa, w ziarnie zbóż oraz w czasie słodowania i warzenia. Opisano występowanie aflatoksyn, ochratoksyny A, fumonizyn i toksyn fuzaryjnych (najczęściej DON) w piwie. Chociaż do tej pory zagrożenia spowodowane spożyciem piwa zawierającego mikotoksyny nie są do końca wyjaśnione, tym niemniej udowodniona jest szkodliwość skarmiania zwierząt gospodarskich ubocznymi produktami słodowania i warzenia zawierającymi mikotoksyny.
EN
The work discussed the occurrence of mycotoxin in different stages of beer production; cereals grains, malting and brewing. It described contamination of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and Fusarium toxins (mainly DON) in beer. It is ascertained that the health risk to human from consuming mycotoxins contaminated beers is uncertain, but these is a clear risk to farm stock fed on contaminated malting and brewing by products.
PL
Omówiono zagadnienia związane z programowaniem przedsięwzięcia i projektowaniem obiektów budowlanych.
EN
Problems related to the programming and designing of building objects of the market are described.
12
Content available remote Synteza 2-metylopirazyny
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PL
Omówiono metody wytwarzania 2-me-tylopira2yny ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem współcześnie rozwijanych kierunków. Podano parametry oraz stosowane katalizatory w syntezie 2-metylopirazyny metodą cyklizującej dehydrokondensacji etyleno-diaminy z glikolem propylenowym, tlenkiem propylenu, izopropyloaminą, formaldehydem oraz metylowanle pirazyny.
EN
Methods for producing 2-methylopyra-zine are discussed with special attention to being currently developed directions. Parameters and catalysts used in 2-methylpyra-zine synthesis by cyclizing dehydroconden-sation of ethylenediamine with propylene glycol, propylene oxide, isopropylamine, formaldehyde and pyrazine methylation are given.
14
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EN
The nonionic detergent, Tergitol TMN6, the product of the reaction of 2,6,8-trimethyl-4-nonanol with ethylene oxide, was ozonised in an aqueous solution. The efficiency of Tergitol TMN6 degradation was related to ozone concentration in the gas phase, initial concentration of the detergent and pH. The following analytical techniques were applied: paleography, UV-spectroscopy and COD determination. It was found that for the detergent concentration below critical micelle concentration (CMC) the reaction rate was linearly dependent on O3 concentration, as well as on detergent concentration raised to 1.4 power. For the detergent concentration above the CMC value the reaction rate 3 was slower. The highest rate of ozonation of Tergitol TMN6 brought about a decrease of pH (due to the oxidation of the aliphatic chains to carboxylic acids) and a slaw decrease of COD in the reaction mixture.
EN
Microscopic fungi are microorganisms commonly found in cereal products. Pathogens of cereals colonising kernels are responsible, among other things, for deterioration of the technological value of grain. However, the greatest threat is posed by mycotoxins produced by toxin-forming strains of these microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to determine the level of contamination with microscopic fungi and mycotoxins from the group of trichothecenes in wheat grain from Poland in a 4-year cycle. In the period 2006–2009, studies were conducted on the content of fungal metabolites (ergosterol [ERG] and type A and B trichothecenes) and the content of microscopic fungi expressed in colony-forming units (CFU) in wheat grain. A total of 129 grain samples were examined. Analysed wheat samples had similar contents of both the investigated fungal metabolites and levels of microscopic fungi. Contents of microscopic fungi were low. Concentration of ERG, on average, was 2.64 mg/kg, while in colony forming units this value ranged from 101 CFU/g to over 103 CFU/g. The total concentration of type A and B trichothecenes was also low and within the 4 years of the investigation did not exceed 0.062 mg/kg. Concentration of DON did not exceed 1,250 μg/kg, established as safe in grain for human consumption, in any of the tested samples. For the results collected in the years 2006–2009 and presented in this paper, correlations were calculated between the amount of mycoflora and analysed metabolites in 3 possible combinations: 0.7096 for ERG/total toxin concentration, 0.6086 for ERG/log CFU/g, and 0.4016 for the concentration of total toxins/log CFU/g. Highly significant correlations between the content of trichothecenes and the concentration of ERG indicate that the level of this metabolite is closely related to the content of mycotoxins in grain.
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