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In the article, the subject of the analysis was Latvian-Lithuanian-Polish dictionary for farmers (Lotewsko-litewsko-polski slownik praktyczny dla rolników i robotników rolnych), printed in Riga in 1937 . This dictionary had been designed as a support for Polish seasonal agricultural workers, tens of thousands of which entered Latvia and had to communicate with Latvian farmers, officials and local people.The problem of dictionary's author is not yet solved. However, it appeared to be proved that the Polish part of the Dictionary represents a cultural dialect of the local Polish language which had been largely under influence of Eastern Slavic language (Russian and/or Belarussian). The influence of Latvian language is obvious, too. From about 1500 analysed words more than 300 peculiar cases were found, among them 53 types of graphical peculiarity.First of all it was lack of letter i used as a palatalization sign (12 cases), hesitation in the usage of the 'softened ' letters akin to 'z' and 'c', application of letter 'i' instead of 'y' or 'j', unhyphened spelling of the 'nie' with verbs, and so on. Types of found phonetic and syntactic peculiarity were respectively 55 and 49, most of them were known and described by other investigators. At inflexion level 79 peculiarity types were found, most numerous of which were addressing forms using 'wy'. Almost one third of all peculiarity types were lexical ones (86), 23.26% of them were semantic innovations, and further 31.40% were disused and old words and meanings. Loans from Russian amount to 4.65%, while from Latvian to less than 3.5%. Further investigations on the Polish language in Latvia will enable to compare this regional dialect with other regional Polish dialects outside borders of the Polish state.
Content available remote The Names of Degrees of Relationship in the Polish Dialect of Latvia
The purpose of the work is to present the names of degrees of relationship within family that are used in the active layer of the lexicon of Poles in Latvia as well as to find whether, and if so, to what degree, those names differ from the names that function in the general contemporary Polish language. The material was analysed by: (1) defining the designation and studying of names referring to it; (2) defining the name and studying the designations that it designates. Also, the cognitive approach was applied - diachronic findings that referred to the Polish language and Baltic and Eastern Slavonic languages were compared to synchronic ones, and those in turn were compared to the findings of research in Latvia. Thus each entry in the study is bi-bipartite - at first, a short etymology of the name is given, next examples from the Latvian Polish are given together with the context and, inasmuch as it is possible, their Baltic and Eastern Slavonic equivalents follow. The work includes also the basic entries from the dictionary for the degrees of relationship (for instance, 'pokrewienstwo rodzinne' (same blood -family relationship), 'powinowactwo rodzinne' (spouse originating family relationship), 'pokrewienstwo pelne i niepelne' (full and partial family relationship)), as well as features associated with the names of degrees of relationship (relativism, correlativism, supletivism, constancy, and universality).The analysis brings forth the following conclusions: - the names of family relationships that are in use among Poles in Latvia are in most cases identical with those used in the general Polish; sometimes phonetic differences occur (for example, pronunciation of the soft l in every position – 'adul'a', semi-soft consonants - s', z', c'), also some morphological differences occur (for instance, the ending of instrumentalis singularis 'z mamoj' instead of 'z mama' ); - some of them are innovations introduced to the Polish language under the Eastern Slavonic influence - 'dziadzia' in place of 'wujek' (uncle), 'papa' - in lieu of tata; - most of those names constitute the common Indo-European heritage - from the domain of the tribal period based on matriarchal system the following names are derived: 'matka' (mother), 'ojciec' (father), 'brat' (brother), 'syn' [son); and others, such as: 'dziecko' (child), 'rodzice' (parents) come from later periods, hence difference between the roots of Polish names and, for instance, Lithuanian or Latvian names.
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