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EN
Did towns exist in Central Europe before the arrival of German and Western European settlers in the twelfth century, and before the establishment of chartered towns, created and consciously planned by the newly arrived? Is it appropriate to designate some of the settlements that existed prior to this major process, which would change the face of these regions forever, as towns? The main problem causing all this uncertainty is contained in the fact that, contrary to the situation in later centuries, there is no unequivocal criterion to discern a town from other types of settlements in the area of Europe situated east of the Rhine and north of the Danube prior to the appearance of chartered towns. Most of the definitions social scientists and then applied to past societies, to see if they fit our schemes of understanding. In this article, the question is asked from the point of view of these societies themselves: what did the people of this period imagine a town to be, and how did they apply their understanding of what a town is to the settlements they actually saw before their eyes? Representations of early urban settlements by contemporary authors writing in Latin are very different from the definitions proposed by scholars nowadays. The criteria which are the most usual today to define the urban character of given agglomerations were very far from the concerns of medieval authors. Great caution should be taken when dealing with the words used by medieval authors to describe their societies. What they had in mind was very different from our own conceptions. Apart from that, many of the aspects that were important for medieval authors - beautiful appearance, notoriety of a settlement - simply cannot be verified in the material culture
EN
In Central Europe culture played a fundamental part in creating social bonds and the shaping of identity. Myths and symbols present in literature, painting and music possess a strong political connotation. In contrast to the western part of the Continent, which with the assistance of literature created myths and symbols endowed with a universal quality, in Central Europe they are always firmly associated with national history. The difficulty of studying that which transpires in Central Europe stems from, i. a. the overlapping of the 'western' and 'eastern' models, from which assorted features are borrowed while adding one's own, original solutions. This state of affairs calls for exceptional alertness, since the evolution of Central Europe is the resultant of choices and the direct surrounding, often known as the 'geopolitical situation'. The presented text is an attempt at analysing several myths and political symbols envisaged as the mechanisms of identity and difference. This concrete question - the attitude towards memory and oblivion - is shown as an example of the profound difference between the cultural psychology of Central Europe and the West, Europa felix.
EN
Besides the already traditionally widely treated Iron Age music instruments, which slightly overstep the field of Situla Art, special attention is paid here to the musicians. In this paper the string and wind instruments known from the East Hallstatt region as well as Situla Art and forms of lyres from West Hallstatt region will be presented. Additionally, small figurines and original finds provide evidence of auloi, syringes made of various materials and carnices (these, however, from the La Tène period). Bells and ideophones are also attested in West Hallstatt region. Special attention is paid to the music practice, social status as well as the gender role of music players. Besides singing, many dance forms are attested; especially in East Hallstatt region the female musicians and dancers must be emphasized.
EN
The article maps current issues concerning popular literature in Central European cultures with a special emphasis on the Hungarian, Slovak, Czech and Polish contexts. It provides a partial overview of the current state of art and of the research approaches and outlines comparative perspectives. The research of popular literature and culture is done either from the inside, i.e. from the position of the experientially motivated recipient (recipient’s perspective) or from the outside – from the position of an external observer. In the latter approach, the interest might lie in the wider external cultural and social contexts (sociocultural perspective) or in the summarisation of bibliographical data (archival perspective). These research lines testify to generically and thematically typical publications from all four linguistic areas – bibliographies, dictionaries, lexicons, case studies, deeper close readings and book-length research. The corpus of this study takes as its material, is composed of texts published in periodicals and online materials as platforms where popular literature is published and critically analysed. It also takes into consideration Central European feedback on the writers of the Western canon, imagological analysis of national stereotypes, popular socialist culture, fandom and fan literature and intermediality and transmediality of popular culture.
EN
This paper analyses the European Union's Cohesion Policy under the 2007-2013 budgetary constraints as seen from the perspective of the new - Central European - member states. In the introduction, the author conceptualises the term 'Central Europe' pointing out the highly diverse and relative way of defining it, both in scholarly literature and in political discourse. Due to the fact that the accession of new states from Central Europe increased the regional disparities (measured in social and economic standards), the role of cohesion policy got strengthened, making its budget the largest part of total EU expenditures. Consequently the efficiency of the policy is put into consideration, including the methodology of evaluations, the criteria used, and objectives. In the concluding part of the paper it is emphasised that the EU Cohesion Policy has also served as a mechanism which promotes a more 'human face' of the European integration process, going beyond a simple 'market friendship' to include ambitions to build a political community based on solidarity foundations. It is the only EU policy that explicitly addresses the economic and social inequalities within the European territory.
EN
The Upper Palaeolithic cultures in Central Europe are traditionally defined on the basis of lithic artefacts, predominantly various types of retouched tools, which are usually considered to be typical of a given culture. For the Late and Final Gravettian, the shouldered points and Kostenki knives are supposed to be the main fossiles directeurs in this region. Based on the identification of these artefacts in Central and Eastern European lithic assemblages, terms such as “Willendorf-Kostenki/Willendorf-Kostenkian”, or “Eastern Gravettian” or even “Shouldered Point Horizon” have emerged, pointing to the analogy between sites hundreds of kilometres apart. However, new excavations, revisions of old collections, as well as modern research methods, have brought new insights into these emblematic artefacts. Although they are likely to be found in some Central European Late and Final Gravettian assemblages, their occurrence is less common than had been anticipated in the past. Our paper aims to propose a historical “Central European” view on these traditional fossiles directeurs considering their identification and cultural value. We also describe their influence on the historical development of terminology in Central European Palaeolithic archaeology.
EN
The study is a follow-up to the recently published articles in Vojenská história, which analysed the causes, development and consequences of the Czech-Hungarian wars for the Babenberg heritage. The epilogue of this great Central European conflict from the 2nd half of the 13th century, resulting in the military victories of the Czechs (and defeat of the Hungarians on the other side) and finally in the diplomatic dominance of the Habsburgs, which prevailed over the activities of the Czech king Přemysl Otakar II., represented the final international isolation of the Czech king and the final military conflict, which resulted in the Battle of Marchfeld in 1278, with the Hungarian and Reich units defeating the Czech king. The study continues the topic of war on the Babenberg heritage, in which this Central European focus of the topic against the background of the relationships of the Austrian countries, Czech countries and the Hungarian Crown concentrates on the detailed analysis of sources in terms of participation of the Hungarian noblemen as well as the development of military events. In the Slovak historiography, no sufficient attention was paid to this topic and even if it has been processed in detail abroad, it is beneficial mostly in terms of its orientation on the Hungarian sources, the diplomatic material in particular. The paper is based on a consistent work with the primary sources of both narrative and diplomatic nature, the author has critically researched and put into context. The secondary literature is also largely represented and applied correctly.
EN
Weapons and especially the combination of different types of weapons in graves usually serve as a starting point for considerations regarding armament and fighting style. On the basis of regional or temporal differences of the weapons present in the graves and their combination, changes in the way of fighting are deduced. In addition, quantitative differences in the equipment of graves with weapons are often used by others to try to prove differentiated gradations in the social rank of the buried. Apart from the fact that at least some of the weapons can be ceremonial or ceremonial weapons or – especially arrowheads or spears – hunting or competition weapons and not the weapons actually or primarily used in battle, it is problematic to draw direct conclusions from the graves´ inventory about the existence of weapons in this world.
ARS
|
2011
|
tom 44
|
nr 1
3-8
EN
The introduction presents basic facts about the work of Max Dvořák, one of the founding fathers of the 20th-century art history, whom the given issue of Ars is dedicated to. It also summarizes how the art historical community perceived ideas of this distinctive Central European scholar in course of the 20th century.
EN
(Slovak title: Autorsko-herecka poetika Daria Fo v stredoeuropskom kontexte (Dario Fo a jeho Maly manual herca v kontexte jeho divadla)). The paper is a continuation of Preco je Dario Fo nositelom Nobelovej ceny? (What Makes Dario Fo the Nobel Prize Winner?), published in Slovak Theatre No. 4/2009. This time, the author-and-actor poetics of Dario Fo is in the centre of attention; it is analysed and recreated against the backdrop of the comparisons with theatre theoreticians, such as Konstantin Stanislavsky, Bertoldt Brecht, Luca Ronconi, and also Jerzy Grotowski. What one finds in Dario Fo is Stanislavsky's identification with the character, however, without the mystic element, Brecht's educated actor, however, without the effect of alienation, the simplicity of costumes and the stage typical of the poor theatre. This blend, or collage if you will, of several well-known 20th century theatre techniques, enriched with internalisation and foregrounding and the updating of the jocular theatre technique and add flair of originality to the Fo's author-and-actor poetics.
EN
The implementation of a new European policy based on integrated rural development is an entirely new experiment in the Central European countries, which formerly belonged to the communist system. The paper attempts to explore the conditions and the context in which the Local Development Model is being transferred from the 'old' member-states to the new ones, and the methods of its implementation. To examine this issue, we consider the European Union's Leader programme (an acronym of 'Liaisons Entre Actions de Développement de l'Economie Rurale') which became the fourth axis of the European Rural Policy (2007-2013). The Leader approach is usually presented as an original way of supporting local development, especially through the Local Action Group (LAG) which is a local body composed of public and private actors. We focus on how this approach is put into effect in three new member states (Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland). Downloading policy to the local communities takes place via various hierarchical modes of governance. Domestic authorities (or transfer operators) transpose and implement European rules and norms which are more flexible than the former development policies. Looking at the main differences between the four countries we explore how the original model is being distorted by domestic institutional factors. Policy transfer processes are not restricted to the ministries of agriculture but involve a wide variety of non-governmental actors mediating the transfer of the model to the local stakeholders who are the acting receivers. The Leader model is experimented in various territorial and social contexts, more or less receptive to this new way of thinking and managing local development. The paper is based on the relevant academic literature, on official national sources and a field research survey. It is a cross-national comparative work that takes into account national and local variations in order to highlight similarities and differences in the transfer of a policy model.
EN
Eastern European cultures of the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC, first of all, Babino and Abashevo, to a lesser extent Lola and Sintashta, have some Central European inclusions, indicating migration from west to east during this period. This makes it possible to establish chronological relations of the complexes of Eastern Europe, the Urals and Kazakhstan at the transition from the Eurasian Middle to Late Bronze Age with the Central European Early Bronze Age2 complexes. Most of the parallels between these regions are dated within broad chronological frameworks. However, comparison of the whole complex of common features allows determining the initial date of the discussed Eastern cultures within phase A1c of Central Europe, which is in a good agreement with radiocarbon dates. Analysis of these materials shows that components formed on the post-Bell-Beaker and post-Corded basis penetrated into Eastern Europe. At the same time, there was a flow from the south, and it is possible that it reached Central Europe.
EN
Along with new ideas inspiring the design of science and knowledge, we observe numerous innovations in the ways of publishing research outcomes. It is possible that digital media together with artificial intelligence are causing permanent changes in scientific communication and in the design of research and publications. In the humanities, this phenomenon has led to the production of academic video and “born-digital” publications. How do these tendencies and initiatives fare in the environment of Central European universities? We have conducted an inquiry into this issue within the pilot research project Interfaces of Science, and the answers given by Slovak, Czech and Polish scientists and researchers indicate that they do not enjoy adequate conditions to develop zeal and openness.
EN
Governments of democratic countries are generally inclined to prepare for elections by distributing benefits, and the new democracies of Central and Eastern Europe seem to be no exception in this respect. The article examines the specific regional characteristics of electoral economic policy. Here too, such distributive behaviour is mainly fiscal in character, yet budgetary signs of it are not always found easily, on the one hand because of problematic accounting practices (especially in the first half of the 1990s), and on the other because the state in the early years of economic transition could easily distribute material concessions out of state or even private corporate capital. On the other hand, the small size of the countries examined - a good deal smaller than the lesser EU member-states used as a comparison - makes it easier to observe the effect of election-time distribution on deterioration in the current account, although what benefits the analysing economist observing them does serious damage to the countries concerned.
EN
This research aims to investigate inclusive growth in six selected Central European countries (Austria, Germany, and the V4 countries) during the years 2006 – 2012. We have relied on the assumption that pro-poor growth, according to its absolute definition, is in line with the definition of inclusive growth (World Bank, 2009). To investigate pro-poor growth, the poverty equivalent growth rate methodology proposed by Kakwani et al. (2004 and 2008) has been applied. Pro-poor growth has been analysed according to its absolute, relative and poverty reducing definitions. The results show that the selected countries experienced positive economic growth accompanied by absolute pro-poor growth throughout the time range analysed, but in only few time periods, and not for all of the poverty measures applied.
EN
The Three Seas Initiative (3SI) is a relatively young format of regional cooperation in Central Europe. It is an example of multilateral diplomacy carried out by heads of state. The main goal of 3SI’s activi- ty is the development of energy, transport and digital infrastructure in the region. In recent years, the extension of the subjective and objective scope of the Three Seas cooperation has been noticeable. The governments of the Initiative countries are becoming more and more important, while the business, expert and social components are strengthening. External actors with the status of observer or participating partner are also of strategic importance for the functioning of 3SI: the US, the European Commission, Germany and Ukraine. The aim of the article is to analyze the origins and functioning of 3SI in the years 2016-2022.
17
Content available remote Bio- und Medizinethik in Ländern Mittel- und Osteuropas. Eine Hinführung
80%
EN
The area of biomedicine is one of the fastes developing areas of science and technology. The perception of its possible and expected positive or negative impacts results in the growing number of bioethical discussions in scientific community, politics and public. Their intensity, focus and used methods differ from country to country. The authors of the prologue have tried to map the state of the art and expected development of bioethical discussion in the countries of Middle and Eastern Europe. In the beginning, they addressed the bioethical experts with short questionnaire from 7 'new' European countries (Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia) and two 'old' European countries (Germany and Austria). In the end, seven experts have responded their questions (Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Austria and Germany) and expressed their expectations and difficulties of the development of bioethical discussions and institutionalisations in their countries. The authors summarize in the prologue the most interesting results.
EN
Czechoslovakia (1918-1993) and its leading politicians played an important role in the 20th century history of Central Europe. The authors analyse the first plan of Milan Hodza, one of the most important Slovak politicians of the first Czechoslovak state (1918 -1939), concerning Central Europe. Milan Hodza, as a prime minister, published his plan named after him in January 1936, and it initiated the economic cooperation of the Danubian states. The authors present the Hungarian and international reactions to the Hodza's plan and its quick failure, mainly on the basis of Hungarian documents. They conclude that the reason for its failure was that it was not in the interest of any country except Czechoslovakia.
EN
Looking at events from the perspective of the “official” US Government during the specific historical “era of imperial rivalry” – it seems that the US recognized the political potential of Central European refugees, who made a very remarkable contribution to keeping the ideological Cold War alive. The present study focuses on the issue of how the US Government looked at and treated Central (or East) European political emigres during the Cold War period. Looking through historical glasses at these processes, we can identify a gradually declining influence of Central European emigres in the West and in especially in the USA. With the passing of time, Central European emigres gradually lost their political bases first at home (in their respective home countries) then in their “shelter“ countries.
EN
After biggest expansion in its history in 2004 and 2007, the external frontiers of the European Union have undergone significant changes. Regarding the eastern direction, the new linear boundaries coincide with the EU were still existing borders Central (Hungary, Slovakia, Poland), Baltic (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) and Balkan (Bulgaria, Romania) with Eastern European countries (Ukraine, Belarus, Russia). Thus, the relations of these states received a new quality of relations between subjects and non-subjects EU. 'What will bring the new eastern frontiers to the old Europe?' This question concerns many people. This is quite understandable, because the answer to it in many ways is security and economic well-being of many countries and peoples. Ultimately, the answer to this question depends on calm and the mood of many families on both sides of the border barrier. It identified two main historical laws of boundaries development and their cross-border flows. The first is defining the unity of their parties, openness and security. The second - depending on borders and cross-border flows on the level (scale and intensity) of economic, political, spiritual and other communications. All the time, the action of these laws has been controversial. But today their manifestations are more controversy than ever.
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