In the self-designed flotation column simulation system, the foaming characteristics of the micro-bubble countercurrent contact flotation column used in the hematite cation column flotation process are systematically studied. The objective of this study is to investigate the bubble generation by a bubble generator in the flotation column. The bubble image was obtained by the high-speed camera recorder, and the bubble diameter was calculated and analyzed by image processing software. The distribution characteristics of the bubble size under different aeration conditions and with different reagent concentrations were investigated. The results show that as the aeration increases, the average diameter bubbles increases, the bubble size distribution changes from narrow to wide, and the number of small bubbles decreases. The cationic collector GE-609 can change the bubble shape. As the concentration increases, the bubble shape gradually changes from an irregular shape to a standard spherical shape. When the concentration of GE-609 exceeds 2.5 mg/dm3, the average circularity C of the bubbles in the bubble group stabilizes at 1, and the increase in concentration no longer changes the bubble shape. GE-609 also has an efficient foaming effect, as the concentration increases, the bubble diameter distribution changes significantly, the proportion of small bubbles increases, and the proportion of large bubbles decreases significantly. When the critical concentration is exceeded, the bubble diameter distribution probability density peak width no longer changes significantly. Compared with the two types of alcohol foaming agents, GE-609 produces a bubble Sauter diameter close to that of 2-octanol and slightly lower than terpineol.