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The problem of national minorities marginalization needs to be considered in a broader context than the case of other groups touched by this phenomenon. From sociological point of view marginalization by definition is a feature of national minorities because of their subordination to dominant group. It limits the opportunity of providing specific cultural needs that are representative for majority. In this sense, all national minorities are touched by ethnic-cultural marginalization. Social policy theory usually defines marginalization as a lack of equal access to welfare, labour market and education. According to this only few national minorities in Poland may be acknowledged as marginalized. The first group are the Roms who may be characterized as totally marginalized. Two other groups may be described as less educated what causes disadvantageous differences in their social structure in comparison to the structure of the whole society. In case of Belarussians it is a consequence of intensive polonisation of the better educated members of this group. In case of German minority, legal and simple work in Germany is valued more than higher social position in Poland.
The interest of the Slovak sociology in dealing with poverty and social exclusion has been rising steadily. Although the spatial aspect of poverty and social exclusion is one of the essential problems, the interest in it is only marginal. This study is trying to trace various spatial levels the poverty problem is connected with. It follows these aspects: 1. interregional disparity concentrating on social-spatial marginal regions; 2. Inter- community disparity; 3. local disparity. Within each level the author presents recent theoretical and indicative referential frames filling them with analysis of the data accessible in the Slovak Republic. The growth of social differentiation after 1989 goes hand in hand with spatial disparity. The interregional and inter-local disparities intensify; the most affected being social-spatial marginalized regions, smaller villages and spatial (also social) segregated communities, poor neighbourhoods in the towns and villages. The study also analyses an extreme example of spatial disparity of the segregated Roma settlements and warns of possible community and neighbourhood effect on intergenerational poverty transfer.
Drawing on the concepts of ‘conspiracy of silence’ and of ‘conspiracy of courtesy’ coined and developed by Joseph Ascroft, the author analyses the consequences of social media on development communication. Adopting a method of conceptual analysis of both concepts as well as using an analogy between development communication mediated by professional journalists and by online publishing laity, this investigation foregrounds the self-marginalisation of a vast chunk of the population which has emerged even in developed countries of the West and which tends to the self-conspiracy. The Western population, that imprisons itself in the national-identity (or ethnocentric) media ‘bubbles’, feels itself to be misunderstood by its own state authorities, and feels socially ignorant, illiterate, uneducated and dependent, in short marginalised in questions of multiculturalism and self-identity. As a result, development communication in the field of social change must take a twofold effort – to overcome the barriers of silent mistrust or of uncooperative courtesy firstly ‘inside the Western society’ facing media ‘bubbles’ as well as ‘outside’ facing real conspiracy of silence or courtesy. The aim of this study is clarifying the role of development communication in processes of social change in the online era and assessing its ability to facilitate active participation of (self-) marginalised groups at all stages of the development process.
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