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Content available remote Impact of private transfers on households' income
100%
EN
The increasing degree of income inequality in Poland rises a question whether these inequalities should be reduced and if so, how the income equalization should be done. In this work the role of private transfers in the household income is shown. It was studied what affects the probability of a private transfer and what are the factors which determine the transfer value. The obtained results suggest the motivation for private transfers and an effect of crowding out private transfers by public transfers. The results for Poland are compared with the results for England, Denmark and Germany.
EN
The aim of the paper is to analyse the causal relationship between income inequality and economic growth in Poland in the period 1990 - 2006. The research method used is based on a study of literature on macroeconomics and international finance, as well as on econometric techniques. All statistics included in the paper are derived from the World Income Inequality Database and World Economic Outlook databases. The obtained results confirm that there is a significant causal relationship between income inequality and economic growth in Poland. Moreover, the study outcomes provide evidence of the existence of a non-linear relationship between the degree of income inequality and level of economic development. This relationship can be graphically represented as a curve shaped like an inverted letter 'U', which is consistent with the Kuznets hypothesis.
EN
The purpose of this paper is to present and test the hypothesis that every society has to make a choice between the limitation of income inequality, on the one hand, and labour market efficiency under¬stood as low level of unemployment and high employment, on the other hand. This hypothesis was used by P. Krugman in mid 1990s to explain the performance of labour markets in the U.S. and Eu¬rope. He argued that negative economic shocks led to higher unemployment in Europe, whereas in the U.S. to greater in¬come inequality. The different response to shocks is mainly due to the diversity of labour market flexibility, above all wage flexibility. Since Krugman`s hypothesis is still well-known, it is reasonable to re-examine it. Generally, a trend towards greater income inequality has been indicat¬ed in a number of studies. There has been considerable discussion of the factors related to this phe¬nomenon, usually with emphasis on: liberalisa¬tion of international trade, skill-biased technical change - SBTC, labour market deregulation. However, only in a few studies econo¬mists take into consideration the correlation between unemployment (employment) rates and income inequality.
4
Content available remote EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN TAX/BENEFIT POLICIES IN AUSTRIA 2003–2005
70%
EN
The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether policy reforms in Austria between 2003 and 2005 were successful in meeting redistributive objectives and in reducing poverty. The authors use the tax/benefit micro-simulation model EUROMOD for this analysis. In the period under review the 2004-2005 tax reform was introduced and contributions to health insurance were raised. On the benefit side no major changes took place, the main family benefits were not even indexed to inflation. The authors find that the measures had no significant impact on poverty and income distribution. However, in total they increased the disposable income of almost all groups of the population.
EN
Main objective of this paper is to analyse the impact of foreign direct investments (FDI) on labour force in transition economies, through monitoring and quantification of selected labour force market indicators. This research analyses and discusses the effects of FDI inward flow on labour force indicators in transition economies from the economic and social point of view (i.e. quality of life of labour force). The paper argues that FDI inward flow should have a positive effect on labour force, through the increase of employment growth rate, wages, and reduction of income inequality. Data processing was done by applying Linear Mixed-Effects Models on 17 transition countries during the period 2000 – 2017. The findings show a positive and significant impact of FDI inward flow on employment rate and on wages and salaries, while the impact of FDI inward flow on income inequality is uncertain. Finally, there are policy and future research recommendations.
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