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Legal diversification of the status of a student of postgraduate courses (as well as supplementary courses and trainings) in relation to the status of student and doctoral student, resulting from the Higher Education Law, caused a transformation of the primary administrative-law relationship into a civil law relationship, based on a contract, not an administrative act. As a result, the possibility of applying to students of postgraduate courses the provisions of the Code of Administrative Procedure was excluded and it became impossible to obtain control exercised by administrative courts due to a purely contractual bond covered by the jurisdiction of common courts.
There is not much cooperation among administrative bodies in Poland. Following the pattern established by American independent regulatory agencies, Poland created a number of regulatory organs and equipped them with a large amount of independence in relation to other administrative bodies. They are no longer obliged to act according to instructions, there is also a special competition-like system of appointing and removal of head officers of such agencies. From the activity of independent regulatory agencies it may be deduced that they act as fully independent entities. This assumption may by drawn from examples such as the reaction towards some actions taken by the Council of Ministers as in the case of the restrictions imposed on the activity of pension funds, introduced by the central government and criticised by some other administrative bodies, even those closely linked to the Council of Ministers (the Government Centre for Legislation). Independence of several regulatory organs is also required by the EU. Frequently, decisions made by regulatory organs have a strong impact on the entire economy of the country. For example, the recommendation of the Commission of Financial Supervision concerning granting loans by banks for the purchase of new apartments – a project aimed at reducing the risk in the banking sector, turned out to have had a substantial impact on the entire construction sector of the national economy, and reduced the demand for new apartments altogether. Independence of the regulator does not mean that the rest of public administration, and the Council of Ministers being a coordinator of the activities of the entire public administration in particular, should be disregarded. Especially, great impact actions should be coordinated. Different forms of bilateral cooperation should also be developed.  
Widoczna jest potrzeba współpracy między organami administracji publicznej, szczególnie między tzw. organami regulacyjnymi wyposażonymi w znaczny stopień niezależności od innych organów administracji. Niezależność tych organów jest mocno akcentowana w przepisach unijnych, co jednak nie wyklucza ich kooperacji z innymi organami administracji. Przepisy dotyczące szeregu organów centralnych zaliczanych do grupy „regulatorów” niejednokrotnie traktują je jako właściwie odrębne władze, a nie część jednolitego systemu administracji. Przykładem może tu być konieczność uzyskiwania odrębnych zezwoleń kilku organów na tę samą czynność Rozstrzygnięcia organów regulacyjnych, choć nakierowane z reguły na jeden aspekt funkcjonowania podmiotów regulowanych, mają znaczenie szersze. Mogą bowiem wpływać na inne gałęzie gospodarki. Rekomendacje KNF-u dotyczące udzielania kredytów budowlanych mają istotny wpływ na funkcjonowanie sektora budowlanego, faktycznie bowiem mają wpływ na popyt na mieszkania. Tradycja administracji europejskiej zakłada silną rolę koordynatora w postaci Rady Ministrów, czy innego organu naczelnego. Nawet gdy brak wyraźnego koordynatora niezależnych organów regulacyjnych, w jakimś zakresie zastępuje go tradycja jednolitej administracji państwowej, ducha współpracy. Niestety w Polsce nie ma tej tradycji, a potrzeba pewnej wzajemnej koordynacji działań niezależnych regulatorów jest zdecydowanie widoczna Trudno sobie wyobrazić, że przepisy ograniczyłyby samodzielność organów uważanych za niezależne organy regulacyjne. Byłoby to zresztą sprzeczne z przepisami unijnymi. Można jednak stosować pewne niewładcze formy współpracy, czy wzajemnej koordynacji posunięć. Mogą też rozwijać się różne formy bilateralnej współpracy między organami – szczególnie gdy skutki rozstrzygnięć regulatora będą odczuwalne w innych działach administracji publicznej.
Within the legal system applicable in the Republic of Poland, it is the Act on cosmetic products of 4 October 2018 that regulates the supervision and supervisory measures in the market for such products. The domestic scheme of market supervision in respect of cosmetic products involves the competencies of the State Sanitary Inspectorate and the Trade Inspectorate. These bodies have been equipped with supervisory measures in the form of administrative sanctions, the most severe of which are financial administrative penalties imposed on business entities under their administrative criminal liability. The ratio legis of this legislative act is based on the premise that the appropriate level of protection of public interest (consumer health and life protection) may be best achieved through the preventive and repressive character of fines. The article substantiates the claim that effective supervision (which provides an appropriate level of consumer health and life protection) determines that supervisory bodies employ financial administrative penalties in judicial matters only if the directives on the penalty extent are understood correctly. This article constitutes a dogmatic and legal analysis of the statutory premises which determine the extent of financial administrative penalties imposed by supervisory bodies (the so-called ‘directives on the penalty extent’) on entrepreneurs within the cosmetics industry under the scheme stipulated in the Act on cosmetic products of 4 October 2018. The article aims to present how these premises are understood and applied in judicial matters by the State Sanitary Inspectorate and the Trade Inspectorate. It is the correct understanding and application of these premises (directives) for the extent of financial administrative penalties that result in the appropriate behaviour on the part of the entrepreneur during the course of the proceedings. This, in turn, is a direct consequence of the extent and severity of the administrative monetary penalty, as it has a preventive and repressive function.
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Over the several decades of her scientific activity, Professor Teresa Rabska played an outstanding role in the formation of Polish administrative law, particularly during the political and economic transformations of the late 1980s, when Prof. Rabska was actively involved in the field. Within public economic law, the role of the state and its tools for influencing the economy have evolved fundamentally. In this area, the administrative sanctions with which administrative bodies were equipped have developed profoundly and taken on an important function. Undoubtedly, the European Union plays a significant role in the development of administrative penalties. Penalties are imposed in the form of administrative decisions, issued according to procedures governed by the Code of Administrative Procedure. This Code and other laws enumerate the prerequisites for assessing a penalty. Among these, the omission of the element of guilt must be a cause for concern. Consequently, particularly in the case of penalties imposed on individuals, the penalty may be imposed on a person to whom no fault can be attributed in the violation of the law that caused the punishment. The system of fines thus arouses great dissatisfaction among market participants. An analysis of the system of administrative penalties in Poland raises the issue of harmonizing solutions on the scale of the European Union, as it is expected that penalties should be of similar size in all member states. However, the statutory enshrinement of high penalties in the current legislation does not prejudge the practice of imposing them. Given the smaller revenues generated in Poland, the penalties imposed should be proportionately lower. Moreover, the law does not categorically require the imposition of high penalties. The legislation often uses the word “may,” from which some people draw conclusions about the imposition of penalties under administrative discretion, which is not legitimate.
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