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Atmospheric ozone remains depleted which in turn leads to the increase of UV-B radiation reaching the surface of the earth and in the same time more and more nitrogen will be imported into the terrestrial ecosystems through nitrogen deposition. These two factors will operate simultaneously. The photosynthetic and physiological responses of deciduous broad leaved species Swida hemsleyi occurring commonly at 1350–3700 m a.s.l. subjected to enhanced UV-B and to nitrogen supply were studied. The experimental design included two levels of UV-B treatments (ambient UV-B, 11.02 KJ m⁻² day⁻¹ and enhanced UV-B, 14.33 KJ m⁻² day⁻¹) and two nitrogen levels (without supplemental nitrogen supply and with supplemental nitrogen supply). An experiment was conducted in open semi-field condition in Maoxian Ecological Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sichuan province, China at 1820 m a.s.l. Enhanced UV-B caused a marked decline in growth parameters, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance to water vapour, chlorophyll pigments, whereas it induced an increase in rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and ROS accumulation and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Enhanced UV-B also induced an increase in leaf thickness and antioxidant compounds content, such as carotenoids and proline content. On the other hand, nitrogen supply caused an increase in some growth parameters, chlorophyll pigments and antioxidant compounds, and reduced ROS accumulation. However, nitrogen supply did not affect MDA content under enhanced UV-B, though it increased antioxidant compounds content and reduced the rate of ROS production and ROS accumulation. These results implied that enhanced UV-B brought harmful effects on Swida hemsleyi seedlings and supplemental nitrogen supply could alleviate the adverse effects of UV-B radiation on plants to some extent.
The biology of flowering and the micromorphology of Cornus alba flowers were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The flowering of white dogwood in 2008 lasted 35 days, and the lifespan of a single flower was 3 days. The number of flowers per inflorescence was variable (on the average, it was 89). The largest group of insects visiting the flowers of C. alba comprised Hymenoptera (mainly bees and andrenids), then ants, dipterans and beetles. They foraged the dogwood flowers most intensively between 11.00 and 15.00. The inconspicuous four-petalled flowers of C. alba were characterised by the occurrence of T-shaped, two-armed non-glandular trichomes covering the receptacle as well as observed on the petals of the corolla, the style of the pistil and the anthers in a smaller number. The trichomes were covered by a thick cuticle with characteristic outgrowths. They contained a living protoplast, and plastids were observed in the cytoplasm of the trichome cells. In addition, anomocytic stomata were found in the epidermis of the receptacle and in the epidermis of the corolla petals. The stigma of the pistil and the adaxial epidermis of the petals were composed of very numerous conical papillae.
Badano biologię kwitnienia oraz mikromorfologię kwiatów Cornus alba przy zastosowaniu mikroskopii świetlnej oraz skaningowej elektronowej. Kwitnienie derenia białego w roku 2008 trwało 35 dni, a długość życia pojedynczego kwiatu wyniosła 3 dni. Liczba kwiatów w kwiatostanie była zmienna (średnio wynosiła 89). Najliczniejszą grupą owadów odwiedzających kwiaty C. alba były błonkówki (pszczoły i pszczolinki), następnie mrówki, muchówki i chrząszcze. Oblatywały one kwiaty derenia najintensywniej między godzinami 10.00 a 15.00. Niepozorne, czterokrotne kwiaty C. alba charakteryzowały się występowaniem T-kształtnych, dwuramiennych, mechanicznych włosków pokrywających dno kwiatowe, a także w mniejszej liczbie obserwowanych na płatkach korony, szyjce słupka oraz pylnikach. Włoski pokryte były grubą kutykulą z charakterystycznymi wyrostkami. Zawierały żywy protoplast, a w cytoplazmie komórek włosków obserwowano plastydy. W epidermie dna kwiatowego i abaksialnej epidermie płatków korony występowały ponadto anomocytyczne aparaty szparkowe. Znamię słupka, jak i adaksialną epidermę płatków korony budowały bardzo liczne stożkowate brodawki (papille).
The polyprenol pattern in leaves of fruit trees belonging to the Rosaceaei (genera: Prunus, Malus) and Cornaceae (genus: Cornus) families is presented. The content of polyprenyl acetates varied within plant species between 10 to 50 mg per gram of dry weight. In genus Prunus, Cornus and in representatives of species Malus domestica, a mixture of polyprenols composed of 18, 19, 20, 21 isoprene units was found. In 6 species of genus Prunus ( sour-cherry ): P. serrulata-spontanea, P. yedoensis, P. fruticosa. P. kurilensis, P. subhirtella and P. incisa the presence of a second polyprenol family, i.e. the group of prenologues consisting of prenol -35, -36, -37, etc. up to -42 was detected.
Spośród ok. 40 gatunków występujących na półkuli północnej do najbardziej ozdobnych należy dereń kousa (Cornus kousa) z rodziny dereniowatych (Cornaceae). W stanie naturalnym występuje pospolicie w Japonii, zwłaszcza na wyspach Honsiu, Kiusiu i Sikoku oraz na Półwyspie Koreańskim. Rośnie tam w lasach górskich, w piętrze krzewów. W środkowych Chinach występuje jego odmiana chińska – Cornus kousa var. chinensis.
Cornelian cherry is a little-known plant that can be grown in Poland both on a commercial and amateur scale. The commercial cornelian cherry plantations should be established using selected cultivars or vegetatively propagated valuable ecotypes, as only this guarantees a uniform yield, maturation and standardization of fruit quality. The experiment was carried out in 2014 and 2015 in the private plantation of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) located in Dąbrowica, near Lublin (22.454 N; 51.270 E). The subject of the research were ecotypes No.: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 14, 15 obtained as seedlings in 1998. Cornelian cherry plants obtained from seeds differed very much in the yield and quality of fruit. The fruit characteristics for the examined ecotypes ranged to 1.63–2.21g for fruit weight, 1.30–1.61 for fruit shape index, 10.13–15.32% for content of stone, 17.85–22.68% for soluble solids content (SSC), 2.32–3.0% for titratable acidity (TA), 6.59–8.36 for SSC/TA, 54.9–75.97 for vitamin C content. Among the ecotypes studied in terms of external fruit features, ecotypes No. 3 and 4 were distinguished due to the largest fruits (mass and diameter) and relatively small share of the stone in the whole mass of the fruit. However, due to the chemical composition, the fruits of ecotype No. 5 were distinguished by the content of extract, extract to acids ratio, sugar, dry matter, anthocyanins and vitamin C content. These fruits enjoyed 55% strong acceptability among adults. The indicated ecotypes can be used in breeding as well as in nursery for obtaining valuable varieties of cornelian cherry for production in Poland.
Content available Deren, dereniowka oraz swidwa
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