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The current state of the debate on the linguistic factors in color perception and categorization is reviewed. Developmental and learning studies were hitherto almost ignored in this debate. A simple experiment is reported in which 20 Academy of Fine Arts, Faculty of Painting students' performance in color discrimination and naming tasks was compared to the performance of 20 Technical University students. Subfocal colors (different hues of red and blue) were used. While there was no difference in overall discrimination ability, AFA students had a much richer and specialized color vocabulary. Both groups also applied different strategies of discrimination and naming. However, naming system in neither group was coherent. This suggests that naming played primarily the role of markers for control processes rather than names for categories. It is concluded that up-to-date debate is too simplified and a complex model of interrelations between perceptual categorization and naming framed in the developmental context is needed rather than the search for a simple answer 'language', 'environment', or 'perceptual universals'.
The essay surveys the methods of studying developmental neuroplasticity at the meeting points of neuroscience and cognitive science. How is this issue related to debates on modularity? How does plasticity appear in disorders of different origin, from clearly and supposedly genetic impairments to clearly acquired ones.
Content available remote ANIMOVANÝ FILM A DETSKÁ MYSEĽ
The author of this study deals with the reception of animated films by child viewers. She attempts to clarify the process of how animated stories are understood with regard to the cognitive and emotional skills of children of preschool (4–6) and early school age (7–9). She confirms the theoretical propositions of developmental psychology and supplements them with a qualitative testing of selected age groups. This study aims to outline how children think and apply this knowledge in analysing the process of how they watch animated films, children’s most favourite film genre. The results will not only point to the problems of child viewers, but also of films intended for them.
The object - an individuated, integral and continuous element of reality - is a basic unit of human cognition. Objects, spatial relations between them, and trajectories of their movements are the contents of the very first perceptions and categorizations. It is claimed that abstract things (numbers, values, etc.) are categorized and understood through 'reification' - by analogy to material objects. A complete and coherent analysis of object and reification concepts, and their relation to language, was proposed from an empiricist position by W. V. O. Quine. His proposal is at the same time an almost complete research program for cognitive developmental psychology. Here psychological reality of this program is analyzed in the light of contemporary research on object perception, individuation, perceptual and conceptual categorization, object permanence, inferring the object's causal role from different patterns of movement, and reification of abstract things. It is concluded that Quine accurately diagnozed the role and properties of the object category in cognition, but he underestimated the smartness and conceptual advance of cognitive tools used by the child at the very start. We refer here to mechanisms of object individuation, perception of object permanence, and attribution of causal roles on the basis of patterns of movement, and finally formation of basic ontological distinctions from the prelinguistic stage.
The aim of the research was to study somatic markers during decision-making in children aged 6-14 years. On the basis of the success in Piaget’s experiments, 27 children were divided into three groups – preoperational stage, concrete operational stage and formal operational stage. Children played a modified Iowa Gambling Task while skin conductance and heart rate were measured. The somatic markers appeared during decision-making in children from the age of approximately 10 years, the period of concrete operational stage.
The Slovak cinematography has to cope with the following conditions: the country’s small unprofitable market, small population size, underdeveloped cinematographic infrastructure and lack of viewership’s affinity to Slovak films. They largely predetermine its development in the coming years. This paper explores institutional conditions in the European and Central European context based on available studies on economic factors and trends in public support in the era of increasing digitalization in order to point to the current challenges of the domestic environment in relation to the systemic stabilization of the realization base of Slovak cinematography and help identify potential phenomena in the domestic audio-visual sphere.
Cognitive processing of temporal information is based on multiple domains of knowledge including psychological and physical ones. The notion of age is an aspect of psychological time that can be conceived as a 'lived-experienced' time, whereas the notion of duration is an aspect of physical time. This research examines whether the acquisition of the notions of age and duration during cognitive development is simultaneous, as is suggested by the piagetian thesis, or successive, as recent research has shown. Four problems concerning past and future age and duration notions were presented to 146 Greek pupils aged 6 to 9 yrs. Pupils were asked to answer the questions and justify their answers. It is shown that a) in problems asking about past events, both age and duration are very difficult for children, b) problems asking about the future are easier and, contrary to the piagetian thesis, the acquisition of age in fact precedes duration. Moreover, cognitive boundaries during development are considered.
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