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EN
The article focuses on the doctoral dissertation of Anna Radziwiłł (1939–2009) entitled Ideologia wychowawcza sanacji i jej odbicie w polityce szkolnej w latach 1926–1929 (The educational ideology of the Polish Sanation and its reflection in the school policy in 1926–1929). She wrote her thesis at the Faculty of History at the University of Warsaw under the guidance of her thesis supervisor Adela Bornholtzowa, and defended it in March, 1967. The paper concerns an important issue of the role of upbringing and education in educational policies that dominated among the society during the interwar period. The thesis is composed of three parts: general principles of the educational ideology of Sanation, the implementation of the educational ideology of Sanation, and the educational ideology of Sanation compared with other ideological tendencies.
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Content available Kobiety na Politechnice Lwowskiej
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The author of the article wants to picture the education opportunities for females in the 19th and 20th centuries at higher education institutions. The article brings forward the characters of women associated before World War II with the oldest technical university in Poland, the Lviv Polytechnic, detailing their contribution to the development of Polish science.
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Content available Bruno Schulz i muzyka. Exordium
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EN
The aim of the article is to answer the question whether there are any connections between Bruno Schulz’s prose and the art of sounds, and how music is present in his prose. It is also the first recognition of this issue in his work, compiling the previous fragmentary opinions of scholars of Schulz’s work on this subject.
EN
Objectives: In the interwar period, educational magazines played a huge role in popularizing the latest concepts and didactic solutions. In the years 1918-1939, several titles were addressed to pre-school educators. In this group, "Preschool Education" can be considered as one of the most important magazines. His main tasks included improving teachers' professional competences and disseminating the achievements of Polish and world pedagogical thought. On the pages of the magazine, much attention was paid to the issue of mathematical education of a small child. These publications were substantive support for pre-school educators at the time. Material and methods: analysis of source texts Results: On the pages of the "Preschool Education" (1925-1939) magazine, many articles can be found in the field of mathematical education of a small child, constituting significant substantive support for pre-school educators in the interwar period. Conclusions: The text is a short presentation of articles in the field of mathematics education published in the journal "Preschool Education" (1925-1939).
EN
The article presents and rethinks the attempts to establish a Polish-Ukrainian dialogue in The Second Polish Republic between the First and Second World Wars. The strategic partnership between Poland and Ukraine has been maintained for the last thirty years. The state of this bilateral relations remains one of the determining factors of regional stability, especially in the context of deterring external threats. The long and contradictory history of Polish-Ukrainian relations is not only the subject of emotional scientific discussions, but also plays the role of a factor that contributes to the growth of ideological and political confrontation, while influencing the current policy of both countries. Interethnic relations in The Second Polish Republic continue to be interpreted differently by Polish and Ukrainian historians. In view of this, the search for and rethinking the facts of attempts to establish a Polish-Ukrainian dialogue between the First and Second World Wars is becoming especially relevant today. It is concluded that during the years of domination in Western Ukraine, the Polish authorities have failed to develop a comprehensive program to resolve the “Ukrainian question”, instead trying to break the resistance of Ukrainian by force. In general, the entire national policy of the Polish state of the interwar period was characterized by uncertainty, half-hearted decisions and unjust and cruel discriminatory measures against Ukrainians. On the Ukrainian side, the constructive dialogue was also complicated by the propaganda of radical forces, which proclaimed that there was no need to seek a compromise with the Poles, and characterized any attempts at understanding as national treason. National extremism on both sides led to further aggravation of relations, which erupted, in particular, the Volyn tragedy of 1943. As a result, it led to the radicalization of the Ukrainian national movement, the weakening of the Polish state, and subsequently cost both nations numerous casualties as a result of the violent suppression of the national development of Ukrainians and Poles that lasted for decades. At the same time, there are many examples of Polish-Ukrainian cooperation of intellectual elites of the interwar period, which not only observed and stated, but also took practical steps in this direction
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Content available remote Československá města v sítích letecké dopravy meziválečného období
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In the 1920s, civil aviation began to flourish. Initially, single-engine airplanes carried a few kilos of mail, whereas twenty years later, there were comfortable passenger airplanes in operation that travelled hundreds, even thousands, of kilometres. Locating an airport far away from a city was a problem, as it significantly increased transport times to the city centre. Therefore, proposals were put forward to place airports on buildings in the city centre, such as on Masaryk Railway Station in Prague. For many reasons, especially security, this concept was not developed, which enabled the creation of a civil airport network located in large Czechoslovak cities, intended for both domestic flights and international connections to Western countries. This paper aims to analyse the position of airports in relation to cities, their layouts, equipment and occupancy by regular transport airlines.
EN
This work constitutes a continued presentation of the history of Polish research in the fauna of the Tatra waters and covers the inter-war period. During the years 1919-1939 these studies were still conducted but on a smaller scale than before the 1st World War. Many publications were based on earlier research done before 1914, which were broader works concerning the territory of the whole country, including also the Tatra waters, such as a monograph on the leeches of Poland by Michał Giedroyć, lacewing insects by Józef Dzięgielewicz, or uxtaposition of Heteroptera (true bugs) of “Galicia” by Adam Krasucki. Alfred Lityński summed up his many years’ research on the fauna of Cladocera (water fleas) conducted in 120 ponds, both on the Polish and Slovak sides of the Tatra Mountains. Unpublished materials of deceased scientists were used as well. Professor Kazimierz Simm, the disciple of professor Antoni Wierzejewski who died in 1916, published his monograph on Spongaria, in which he mentioned Spongaria from the Toporowy Pond and included notes about the winter fauna in the outflow of Morskie Oko. Museum collections were also used. Edward Schechtel worked out feed for trouts caught in Morskie Oko in 1900. New research on the fauna of the Tatra Mountains were conducted both as part of broader studies in the Polish fauna but also presented results of studies pursued only in the Tatras. Numerous researchers continued earlier studies of zooplankton crustacea in the waters of the Tatra Mountains during the inter-war period. Monographic study on Phyllopoda and Copepoda complexes of the Toporowy Pond was presented by Kazimierz Gajl. Several works of Zygmunt Koźmiński were devoted to population and taxonomic studies on plankton crustacean Cyclops strennus. Tadeusz Wolski found in the bog-spring on Kalatówki a new Tatra species of water flea (Cladocera) – Moina rectirostris. Meaningful from the scientific point of view and, at the same time, controversial, was the work of Gajl on Branchinecta paludosa. Using an enormous amount of materials coming from the Dwoisty Pond, as well as comparative material from Scandinavia, arctic European and Asian parts of Russia, Greenland, Alasca, and on the basis of differences in anatomical features, he came to a conclusion that the population of the Polish Tatras was a separate species Branchinecta polonica. This distinction was questioned later by scientists. It remained unsolved, however, because the population of this species in the Dwoisty Pond died out. At that time, for much broader scale studies were performed on flatworms (Dendrocoelum lacteum). They were started by Władysław Poliński with his monograph on the distribution of two species of Acoela – Crenobia alpina i Dugesia gonocephala – in Poland, and continued by W. Tomaszewski. Yet much greater achievements in learning about this group were made by Marian Gieysztor, who not only named several new species from the Tatras but on the basis of the materials coming from there also described species quite new to science: Macrostomum catarractae and Dalyellia tatrica. His research were on the global scale and later scientists named one species Gieysztor. From the world-science point of view, equally important were studies conducted by Witold Stefański on nematodes living freely in pond mosses and the lakes of the Tatra Mountains. In addition to the register of species, majority of which were found for the first time in the Tatra waters, he described three species new to science: Tripyla tatrica, Steratocephalus demani and Bunonema steineri. One of the greatest achievements of inter-war hydrobiology were studies concerning biology of the inshore sands, the so-called psammon, conducted by Jerzy Wiśniewski all over Poland, including the territory of the Tatra Mountains. In the Tatras Wiśniewski studied the fauna of rotifers occurring in the psammon on the shores of lakes and streams and the fauna of underwater sand. Briofile rotifers in Poland were studied by Leszek Kazimierz Pawłowski and in his research materials from the Tatra Mountains were also included. Similarly, Władysław Rydzewski in his review of Polish water mites from the Tatras named 9 species. On a smaller scale studies were conducted on the insects living in the Tatra waters. In his key to mayflies, based on the archive materials, Józef Stanisław Mikulski listed 7 species from the Tatra Mountains. A note on morphologic differences of mayflies from Baetis alpinus group was published by Anna Steinberg. Publishing his findings of many-years’ studies on lacewings in Poland from the area of the Tatra Mountains, Jan Zaćwilichowski named only one species Sialis flavilateratafrom Stawy Gąsiennicowe. In a thorough monograph by Tadeusz Jaczewski on water boatmen (Heteroptera) in Poland, there is only one mention of aquatic bug Glaenocorisa cavifrons occurring in the Toporowy Staw. In his subsequent work (Jaczewski), another species from Toporowy Staw was mentioned – Notonecta lutea. Of fundamental importance were only the studies on Tatra dragonflies conducted by Józef Fudakowski. He found 39 species of dragonflies in the area of the Tatra Mountains, occurring in lower water bodies: Toporowy Staw Niżny, Toporowy Staw Wyżny, Smreczyński Staw, at Capki bog-spring, on Siwa Polana, in Dolina Kondratowa, Dolina Pyszna, and the high-situated bog-spring near Morskie Oko. A popular-science review of studies on the Tatra lakes, which included also fauna research, were presented by Jerzy Młodziejowski i J. Rzóska.
EN
Discussion about hard theme in years 1919-1939 The State Treasury Solicitors’ Office but giving many joys researcher. Acts allow to learn creation right law in II RP. I have described state of safe keeping of records gathered and stock in other archives concerning The State Treasury Solicitors. I have taken advantage available literature in my work, but it is not enough articles and publication on this theme work. However, personal observations are done during research been base of work. Researches had to show that possible find in this records in relation to province Lubelskie. It belongs to ascertain on base carried research, that group owns many interesting materials general concerning agricultural character province Lubelskie. First of all, they describe, archives describe relations among government officials and citizens. Otherwise, that allows to peer at questions from domain of rural economy in interwar period in the area Lubelskie. Article has to call attention as it says about office on purpose on meaning on acting administration The State Treasury Solicitors’ meeting of judicial authority among administration. I have described in concise form shortened manner for intent observing in forming describe operation role that right law The State Treasury Solicitors’ and relations administration -citizen. In article describes be that The State Treasury Solicitors Office (Prokuratoria Generalna Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej) and it serves examples can be for that archives useful.
EN
The Polish Evangelical opinion-forming circles within the interwar pe-riod presented their opinions in the Evangelical press, among others, “Głos Ewangelicki” (Evangelical Voice) and “Zwiastun Ewangelicki” (Evangelical Herald).For the Polish people then Reformation time was the period of building up foundations for the Polish Protestantism.Efforts were focused on strengthening their sense of both Polish as well as Protestant identity and witnessing the Polish roots of the Polish Protestantism.Much space was dedicated to the person of Martin Luther, importance of Reformation for the development of the Polish culture and national language. The fall of the reformation movement and its various trends were considered.Approach to the achievements of Reformation both in European and Polish dimensions was pretty uncritical – as it was the God’s work and gave people, including Poles “true” faith.
EN
Vital interest of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (CPC) in struggle to achieve political power was to make its program attractive to a broad masses of Czechoslovak population. The Marx-Leninism, which became an ideological base of CPC, presented itself as the only relevant ideology capable of establishing a “socially just” society. Revolution as a road of the Communist regime to impose its rule was presented as unavoidable, because it was in harmony with laws of social progress formulated by Friedrich Engels, Karl Marx and Vladimir I. Lenin. The essential role in spreading ideology of the Marx–Leninism, according to leadership of CPC had propaganda. Despite strictly formulated principles of the Marx-Leninist ideology, communist propaganda during the existence of Czechoslovak Republic morphed in dependence on changing political development. Vicissitudes of form and content of communist propaganda in monitored period are traced in submitted paper. An emphasis is given to, till now, unpublished archival documents, deposited in Slovak and Czech archives. Invaluable source offering insight to concrete workings of communist propaganda is a contemporary press, primarily periodicals Pravda Chudoby and Pravda, which represented ideological views of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. A relevant source of information are social democratic Robotnícke noviny, which monitored closely development of its main rival CPC. A literature dealing with various aspects with history of Czechoslovak Communist Party was used where it was suitable to complement events by a more general description.
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Content available remote Państwo i jego ustrój w myśli Ignacego Matuszewskiego
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EN
The article deals with concept of the state and its system according to Ignacy Matuszewski (1891–1946) — a soldier, journalist and politician with extraordinary abilities in all those areas of activity. Cofounder, as the head of the Second Unit of the General Staff, of intelligence successes during the Polish-Bolshevik War; Minister of Treasury, implementing, with iron consistency, the principles of deflationary policy; the Piłsudskiites’ leading publicist and economic expert; champion abandoned by his political environment, opposing the government’s propaganda and pointing to Poland’s unpreparedness for imminent war; animator of the Polish diaspora in the U.S.; defender of Poland’s interests, trying to show the Western public opinion the true face of the Soviet Union. The article focuses on Matuszewski’s systemic concepts, since he cocreated the policy of the state as the leading publicist of “Piłsudski’s Colonels” and participant to backroom conferences on rebuilding the system of the state. Herein, Matuszewski’s publicist activity including systemic discussions is presented, his participation in constitutional conferences in 1928 and 1932, his press publications in the period between the last conference and the adoption of the April Constitution, as well as a series of articles of 1935, presenting principles of the new fundamental law, whose ideological foundations and systemic solutions were fully accepted and supported by Matuszewski.
EN
In the interwar period in printing and bookbinding 15.290 people were employed, which was only 0.11% of whole working population. Printers willingly joined together in unions and organizations, their environment had strong ties not only professional but also social. Testimony of those events were humorous dailies, which were printed in case of jubilees and regularly organized banquets. As aresult of the analysis of three interwar dailies from Polish digital library collection, it has suc­ceeded to save social relations of printers who, despite many financial problems, were behaving with big distance towards surrounding reality; editors binding was included in investigated documents.
EN
The object of this paper is the extent and dynamics of language changes in the interwar period. The rebirth of Poland in 1918 and the resulting sociopolitical and cultural transformations caused major changes in the use of Polish as compared to the period of the Partitions. The process of language unifi cation, in particular on the phonetic plane, accelerated in the new conditions. The interwar period set the language development directions as regards word formation, namely expansion of acronyms, use of surnames as the derivation basis, and creation of hybrid structures with prefi xes and other elements of foreign provenance. The interwar period’s contribution to the evolution of the Polish language is internationalisation of vocabulary on the one hand and its Polonisation on the other hand. The ground-breaking nature of the period 1918–1939 is evidenced also by the multiplication of the lexical resource of the language. The unappreciated role the interwar period played in the evolution of Polish needs to be verifi ed and exposed in the periodisation of the history of language.
EN
The article presents the military relations between Poland and the Soviet Union in the years 1921-1939, from the end of the war between Poland and the Bolshevik Russia until the beginning of World War II. Its content has been divided into four subchapters, in the first of which the author analyzes the state of research on the topic in question and the state of preservation of sources in Polish and foreign archives. In the following subsections, the author presents the military relations between Poland and the USSR in three periods: in the years 1921-1926, 1926-1935 and 1935-1939. The last subsection is key to the undertaken research problem. It contains findings on the changes in the mutual military relations to the disadvantage of Poland, in connection with the rapid expansion and modernization of the Red Army and the difficulties of the Polish military intelligence in their assessment and difficulties in recognizing the reconstructed cooperation between the USSR and Germany.
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During the late 19th century and early 20th century, co-education on a secondary school level was still a source of controversy, resulting in a public discussion. The first co-educational secondary schools in the Polish territories were established over the course of the First World War. During that time, in light of a realistic chance for Poland to regain independence, the teaching community undertook discussions regarding the shape of education in independent Poland. Still, many people still viewed co-education with a degree of doubt. In the interwar period, however, the number of public and private co-educational secondary schools increased. They were located primarily in smaller cities. Additionally, men usually represented the majority of students. This dynamic was a result of allowing women to attend institutions that had originally functioned as all-male schools, thus creating a coeducational schooling system. The level of education in these institutions was generally low.
EN
The article is an attempt to present the problem of natural disasters and their influence on the economy and the functioning of the insurance market during the interwar period in Poland. The Author reveals the picture of Poland grappling with a number of challenges such as the unification of the legislation or rebuilding of the economy deteriorated by the war. The country had to increase its expenditure in the aftermath of natural disasters. Poland is presented as a state that had to cope with disasters and various economic turbulences every three years on average. As early as in 1921, the whole territory of Poland was struck by scorching heats resulting in huge loses in its economy, especially in agriculture. Mid 1920s was a period of raging inflation but also a struggle with the flood, which had been the greatest natural disaster in the territory of Poland in over three centuries. The years 1926–1929 were the heyday for the Polish economy, yet Poland suffered the first signs of an economic breakdown in 1929. In the summer of 1928, it had faced a tornado that destroyed houses, obliterated forests and claimed the lives of many. A similar occurrence was recorded in 1931 in the area of Lublin, where a hurricane of unprecedented force ravaged the land. The turn of the year 1929 went down in the history of our nation as the winter of the century. Another flood ravaged Poland in 1934, when the country had not yet fully recovered after the economic collapse caused by the Great Depression. The flood caused losses exceeding 84 million zloty. The Author also presents changes in the legislation of that time forced by the disasters and, above all, the law concerning prevention of fire and other natural disasters. It was a law which owing to the support of insurers enabled fire brigades and fire fighter units to develop so that the general public and its property could be safeguarded against disasters in the future.
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In the interwar period, many sports and recreation facilities were built in Poland. Some of them were located in unique spaces with significant aesthetic and environmental values. One of the examples of such facilities are open swimming pools in the city of Wisła, Ciechocinek and Lviv. Examples of these objects show thoughtful compositional and urban solutions. Such a location of the facilities surrounded by nature was conducive to rest and practicing sports undisturbed by city noise. The location of water sports facilities in parks had many advantages which resulted in better conditions for practicing sports.
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Review of the book: "Do zobaczenia za rok w Jerozolimie. Deportacje polskich Żydów w 1938 roku z Niemiec do Zbąszynia"
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The article shows the picture of mathematics and logic that can be found in the encyclopaedias published in the Polish interwar period. The most comprehensive three popular en¬cyclopaedias at that time considered in the article are as follows: Ilustrowana encyklopedia by Trzaska, Evert and Michalski, Encyklopedia powszechna Ultima Thule, and Wielka ilustrowana encyklopedia powszechna published by the Gutenberg publishing house. We also explore one thematic encyclopaedia Świat i życie: zarys encyklopedyczny współczesnej wiedzy i kultury, as well as a quite specific publication – not an encyclopaedia in itself but one of encyclopaedic character – prepared by outstanding Polish mathematicians, i.e. Poradnik dla samouków (volumes 1 and 3 of the 2nd series were devoted to mathematics and logic). The view of mathematics and logic in encyclopaedias is important because of an intensive progress in mathematics and mathematical logic in the interwar Poland. Analysis of entries dedicated to these fields of knowledge shows that both mathematics and logic were presented in a reliable and modern way with consideration for the state of research at that time. Also new, developing mathematical disciplines were taken into account, as, for example, set theory, topology, or the rudiments of mathematics. With too much modesty sometimes, the input of Polish scientists in this development was stressed. Furthermore, the article analyses what topics, questions, and forms did not find their reflection in the encyclopaedias, as well as the reasons why it so happened.
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