The eastern flank of NATO has been a region of strategic importance due to its proximity to Russia. Moreover, tensions have escalated in recent years following Russia’s annexation of Crimea and military intervention in Ukraine. As a result, questions have emerged regarding the preparedness of NATO’s eastern flank in the event of a military conflict. One critical aspect of preparedness is the ability of its inhabitants to move and relocate to safer areas during a crisis. This article provides a comprehensive literature review on the mass evacuation of civilians, focusing on the spatial mobility of residents of NATO’s eastern flank in the event of a military conflict on their territory. It delves into the availability of transportation infrastructure and the supply of resources for relocation, factors crucial for spatial mobility during military conflict. Additionally, the article explores the potential impact of critical infrastructure destruction and the complex behavioral issues affecting evacuation. The study’s findings reveal that both logistical and human factors must be considered in evacuation planning, contributing to the state of the art in this field. The implications of this work reach beyond immediate preparedness strategies, suggesting the need for a holistic approach that combines infrastructure development, resource allocation, human behavior understanding, and international coordination. By highlighting these nuances, the article offers valuable insights that may inform policymakers and practitioners in developing more effective, resilient strategies for managing mass evacuations during times of crisis, reflecting broader concerns about regional security and humanitarian response.