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EN
As we know relatively little about the development of wisdom in youth, the following study was designed to examine whether and how wise functioning would predict coping strategies in adolescents. As layperson’s implicit theories of wisdom suggest that wisdom varies by age, we wanted to see if and how age might correlate with wisdom, and examine the role of age as a mediator between wisdom and coping. Consequently, this article provides some initial evidence indicating that wise thinking, behaving, and age are related to coping strategies. It seems that wise individuals act when confronted with adversity and obstacles, focusing on the benefits that follow from stressful events. At the same time, they try to avoid using responses that are commonly considered less adaptive or immature: denial or substance use. These choices may be related to the equilibrium between knowledge and doubt that is believed to be the core of wisdom. Therefore, being wise lies not in what is known, but rather in the way in which the knowledge is used in everyday life and experienced as time passes by.
EN
As we know relatively little about the development of wisdom in youth, the following study was designed to examine whether and how wise functioning would predict coping strategies in adolescents. As layperson’s implicit theories of wisdom suggest that wisdom varies by age, we wanted to see if and how age might correlate with wisdom, and examine the role of age as a mediator between wisdom and coping. Consequently, this article provides some initial evidence indicating that wise thinking, behaving, and age are related to coping strategies. It seems that wise individuals act when confronted with adversity and obstacles, focusing on the benefits that follow from stressful events. At the same time, they try to avoid using responses that are commonly considered less adaptive or immature: denial or substance use. These choices may be related to the equilibrium between knowledge and doubt that is believed to be the core of wisdom. Therefore, being wise lies not in what is known, but rather in the way in which the knowledge is used in everyday life and experienced as time passes by.
EN
The study was undertaken to determine the extent of positive changes in adolescents who have experienced negative life events and establish the role of coping strategies in this process. The research group consists of 130 adolescents, of which 54% said that had experienced negative life event. 60 persons were included in the examined group, of which 56.7% were boys. The age of teenagers ranged 16-17 years (M = 16.53; SD = 0.50). Personality Growth Questionnaire for the assessment of positive changes and Coping Responses Inventory – youth (CRI-48) to measure coping strategies with stress (both dispositional and situational version) were used in the study. The results indicated that slightly more than 28% of respondents reveal high level of personal growth. Significantly larger are the changes related to appreciation of life than self-perception and relations with others. Situational strategies appeared to significantly relate with personal growth. Taking actions aimed at solving the problem appeared to be the predictor of positive changes in self-perception. Seeking social support and alternative reinforcements are predictors of changes in relations with others.
EN
The purpose of the investigation was to establish the relationship between beliefs about pain control and pain coping strategies and predictors of pain coping strategies. 103 patients with rheumatoid arthritis participated in the study – 59 were women, 43 men. The mean of age was 38.1. Beliefs about Pain Control (BPCQ) prepared by Skevington and Pain Coping Strategies Questionnaire developed by Rosenstiel and Keefe were used in the study. The results indicated on the differentiation in choice of pain coping strategies dependently from beliefs about pain control and revealed predictors for two pain coping strategies. Predictor of diverting attention appeared internal control and predictors of catastrophizing appeared all three kinds of pain control.
EN
The study deals with the predictors of life satisfaction among people in the early aging. The goal of the presented study was to determine how selected personality characteristics and coping strategies predict life satisfaction of the elders. The research sample consisted of 130 seniors, including 55 men and 75 women. To determine the degree of life satisfaction we used the Life Satisfaction Scale SWLS, extraversion and neuroticism, we investigated by personal inventory NEO-FFI and the Coping Strategies Questionnaire SVF 78 was used on the assessment of coping strategies. Regression analysis confirmed that neuroticism was significant predictor of life satisfaction of the elders which explained 9 % of variance of life satisfaction of the elders and strategies of the diversion (strategy diversion and spare satisfaction
SK
Štúdia sa zaoberá prediktormi životnej spokojnosti u osôb v období ranej staroby. Cieľom predloženej štúdie bolo zistiť ako vybrané osobnostné charakteristiky a zvládacie stratégie predikujú životnú spokojnosť seniorov Výskumnú vzorku tvorilo 130 seniorov, z toho 55 mužov a 75 žien. Na zisťovanie miery životnej spokojnosti bola použitá Škála životnej spokojnosti SWLS, extraverzia a neuroticizmus bol zisťované prostredníctvom osobnostného inventára NEO-FFI a na hodnotenie zvládania záťaže bol použitý dotazník Stratégií zvládania SVF 78. Regresnou analýzou boli potvrdené tieto významné prediktory podieľajúce sa na životnej spokojnosti seniorov: neuroticizmus, ktorý vysvetlil 9 % variancie životnej spokojnosti seniorov a stratégie odklonu (stratégia odklonu a stratégia náhradného uspokojenia), ktoré vysvetlili 13 % variancie celkovej životnej spokojnosti seniorov.
EN
The study investigates the emotional costs experienced in the new workplace and general self-efficacy (GSE) as predictors of coping during the first period of reemployment. The study was conducted among 69 unemployed during professional internship. Questionnaires battery was administered in two waves (T1 and T2) within the first two weeks of this kind of reemployment and after 3 months. 35 respondents participated in T2. The results showed GSE and emotional costs as predictors of coping strategies using in the work re-entry phase. Further regression analysis showed a significant relationship between problem solving (T1) and GSE, and emotional costs (T2).
EN
The Strategic Approach to Coping Scale (SACS) is a tool designed to measure coping strategies in terms of the Multiaxial Model of Coping. The aim of this article is to present our work towards adapting the SACS to the Polish cultural context. The Polish translation of this measure and the Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank were applied to 1,074 Poles from 11 sample groups at risk of social exclusion. Principal component analysis performed on the data showed six components rather than the original nine. Second-order factor analysis carried out on the subscale scores revealed three factors partially consistent with the original theoretical assumptions. Convergences and discrepancies of the resulting structure versus the original one are discussed, along with reliability and the preliminary theoretical validity of the method.
EN
The Strategic Approach to Coping Scale (SACS) is a measure based on the Multiaxial Model of Coping. The original version of the scale consists of nine subscales, which form three second-order factors. An up-to-date review of SACS cultural adaptations was provided in order to examine the evidence for the cultural stability of SACS first- and second-level structures. The review demonstrated that among the SACS first-level factors some are more culturally stable and some are more sensitive to cultural context. The second-order structure of the SACS is more interculturally stable, especially the active–passive and social factors have a robust empirical justification.
EN
Purpose: The present study aimed to evaluate mental health and coping strategies among nursing staff in two public hospitals of Greece. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 318 nurses working in two public hospitals in Attica, Greece from February 2017 to May 2017. Data were collected using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-2) and the Greek version of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire. The data were presented as mean and standard deviation and analyzed through student tâ“test, chi-square, and descript_ive statistics using SPSS Version 21.0. The significance level was accepted as P values <0.05. Results: Data analysis revealed that 44% of nurses were suffering from depression and 40.3% from anxiety, with the type of hospital (p≤ 0.001) and marital status (p = 0.031) affecting stress levels. Conclusions: Working in mental health hospital and married nurses were the main risk factors for manifestation of anxiety/depression symptoms among nursing staff. Individual nurse characteristics, such as working experience as well as working environment (general and mental health hospital) were found to be associated with the nurses’ coping strategies in their attempt to deal with their work.
EN
Self-efficacy can affect an individual’s thoughts and emotions. It can be related to self-regulation processes and coping strategies. The aim of the study was to try to answer the question of whether there are correlations between the mentioned variables. To test this, an online survey was designed on the Google Forms platform, which included sociodemographic questions and three questionnaires: General Self-Efficacy Scale, COPE Inventory, Self Regulation Formative Questionnaire. The survey was prepared in English. The survey included 470 participants from Poland and Spain. The study was conducted during increased stress, which is the exam session. The result of the statistical analysis confirmed the accepted hypothesis. Strategies used in coping with stress are related to the level of selfregulation and self-efficacy. The higher the sense of self-efficacy, the more frequent the selection of favorable coping strategies, as well as the higher the level of self-regulation, the more frequent the selection of adaptive strategies and the rarer the selection of adaptive coping strategies. The results obtained are discussed in relation to the literature on the topic and previous studies, and it is suggested that further studies be conducted in a different context, taking into account that the results of self-efficacy or self-regulation could be different during intensified stress, for instance before or after an exam.
EN
Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS) are emotional patterns, developed during childhood and elaborated throughout one's lifetime. Triggering a schema activates the amygdala system, which can lead to anxiety and maladaptive behaviour in adulthood. In our research (N=87) we analysed the relationship between EMS, adult attachment dimensions, the partnership satisfaction and the negative coping styles in a sample of clients with addictions (49) and in a non-clinical sample (38). EMS were positively related with anxiety and avoidance in relationships and negative coping styles. Partnership satisfaction and EMS indicated a negative correlation. The clinical sample’s EMS were significantly higher compared to the non-clinical group. Further research must be done to confirm our results. Nevertheless, the findings suggest the possible role of EMS in developing psychopathology and thus support the principles of schematherapy.
SK
Rané maladaptívne schémy sú emočné vzorce, ktoré sa vytvárajú v detstve ako reakcia na nenaplnené potreby. Spustenie schémy v dospelosti môže vyvolať úzkosť a maladaptívnu reakciu jedinca. V našom výskume (N=87) sme analyzovali súvislosti medzi dimenziami attachmentu v dospelosti, partnerskou spokojnosťou, ranými maladaptívnymi schémami a stratégiami zvládania záťaže. Výsledky sme porovnali u skupiny klientov so závislosťami a u neklinickej populácie. Rané maladaptívne schémy súvisia s vyššou vzťahovou úzkostnosťou i vyhýbavosťou podľa ECR, nižšou partnerskou spokojnosťou a negatívnymi stratégiami zvládania záťaže. Klinická populácia má vyšší súčet raných maladaptívnych schém oproti neklinickej skupine. Pre potvrdenie platnosti bude nutné výsledky overiť v ďalšom výskume s väčšou vzorkou. Výsledky však naznačujú možný význam schém pri vzniku či udržiavaní psychopatológie a podporujú tak princípy schématerapie Jeffreyho Younga.
EN
Rosacea is a chronic and infl ammatory facial dermatosis, which etiology still remains unknown. The patogenetic factors of the somatic basis of this disorder have also its psychological causes. The main aim of the current research was the analysis of the strategies of coping with stress and disease applied by persons suffering from rosacea. The research was exploratory; conducted in two groups. The control group consists of 50 healthy persons, whereas the experimental group consists of 50 patients with rosacea. Both groups where similar in the socio-demographic characteristics. The study used the new and innovative questionnaire, Coping Responses Inventory (CRI) developed by Moos (Moos, R. H., 1986; Moos, R. H., Holahan, Ch. J., 2003). The research data revealed that patients with rosacea use mostly avoidance strategies focused on emotions.
EN
Maintaining high levels of well-being in the face of a chronic disease requires utilization of many psychosocial resources in the coping process. The efficacy of this process depends on using coping strategies that fit to the specificity of a particular chronic disease. The aim of this study was to show the relationships between well-being and coping strategies, and less studied constructs such as resiliency and personal empowerment among people with diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. The study comprised 100 participants (59 with type I diabetes and 41 with rheumatoid arthritis) who completed a set of questionnaires measuring wellbeing, strategies of coping with stress, resiliency and personal empowerment. As expected, there was a significant indirect effect of resiliency on well-being through mediators such as personal empowerment and disease-specific coping strategies. The results support the significant determinants of well-being among people with chronic diseases. They also indicated a more complex structure of the variables in which resiliency plays a major role for the well-being by the means of coping strategies and personal empowerment.
EN
Unaccompanied child migration, propelled by war, political strife and instability is an increasingly serious global problem. Refugee youth contends with numerous challenges as they adjust to living in a new country. Although their capacity for resilience is being given the deserved recognition, studies where their views are taken into account greatly outweigh in number those where the voices of young refugees directly narrate how they bounce forward in the face of an uncertain future (Walsh 2002). Resilience scholars are challenged to move beyond a narrow understanding of youth refugee resilience by conducting research on their life situations exploring their own perspectives. This article describes some of the insights gained from a phenomenological study- whose methods are particularly effective at capturing and illuminating the experiences and perceptions of individuals from their own perspectives- undertaken with unaccompanied minors living in Germany. The narrative approach used to explicate their narratives highlights seven major coping strategies: (1) Treasuring personal identity, (2) Maintaining cultural identity, (3) Networks of support and social negotiations, (4) Nurturing the need to belong, (5) Embracing a positive outlook, (6) Perceived self-efficacy and personal characteristics, (7) Adopting a growth mindset & self-enhancement expectations. The empirical data of this research show that URMs are active agents in choosing meaningful pathways to resilience and purposefully navigate through the numerous challenges in their lives.
EN
The article aims to show analogies between three literary works: Bartleby, the Scrivener: A Story of Wall Street by Herman Melville, My Year of Rest and Relaxation by Ottessa Mosfegh and The New Me by Halle Butler. I will focus on the following points of convergence in these texts: surveillance, the nature of work and the eectiveness of the protagonists' coping strategies. I will draw on some of the existing literature on Bartleby, the works of Francesco Berardi and David Graeber on work, Barbara L. Fredrikson and Tomi-Ann Roberts' paper on the objectication of female body as well as Michel Foucault's study of surveillance and Jonathan Crary's book on sleep.
17
Content available remote Vztahová vazba a copingové strategie u vězeňské populace
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EN
Objectives. The study is aimed at describing attachment and coping strategies in the prison population, and relations between these two variables were tested. Sample and setting. The sample consisted of 122 men serving middle-security sentences mainly for property crime. The attachment was determined by the Czech version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, and coping strategies were measured by The Stress Coping Style Questionnaire SVF 78. Hypotheses. The prisoners’ attachment and coping strategies were expected to be different from those of the normal population. The attachment anxiety and avoidance were expected to be related to coping strategies. Statistical analyses. One sample t-test and Wilcoxon one sample test were used for analyzing the differences in scores between the prison and normal population while the Pearson correlation and linear regression were used to test relations between variables. Results. Inmates were significantly different from the normal population both in their attachment and coping strategies. They exhibited higher attachment anxiety and avoidance compared to the normative sample, fearful avoidant attachment prevailed. Prisoners demonstrated higher Play Down, Distraction from Situation, Substitutional Satisfaction, Flight Tendency, Self-accusation, and Active Avoidance, they exhibited lower Guilt Denial and Rumination. Relational avoidance correlated negatively with positive coping strategies, relational anxiety correlated positively with negative coping strategies. Limitations. The main limitation of this study is the use of a non-representative sample and the self-assessment form of the methods employed.
CS
Předkládaná studie se zabývala vztahovou vazbou a copingovými strategiemi u vězeňské populace. Zkoumaný vzorek tvořilo 122 mužů ve výkonu trestu se středním stupněm zabezpečení. Vztaho-vá úzkostnost a vyhýbavost byla měřena pomocí české verze dotazníku Experiences in Close Re-lationships scale, copingové strategie pomocí do-tazníku Strategie zvládání stresu SVF 78. Vězňové měli statisticky vyšší hodnoty vzta-hové úzkostnosti a vyhýbavosti v porovnání s normální populací. Při porovnání copingových strategií vězňů s normami dotazníku se proká-zaly celkově vyšší hodnoty jak negativních, tak pozitivních strategií. Nicméně u obou typů stra-tegií se většina zvýšených hodnot týkala vyhý-bavých způsobů zpracování stresu. Potvrdil se předpoklad, že mezi vztahovou úzkostností a vyhýbavostí a copingovými strate-giemi u zkoumaného vzorku existuje souvislost. Tendence ke vztahové vyhýbavosti souvisela s nižší mírou pozitivních copingových strategií, kdežto vztahová úzkostnost spíše s vyšší mírou negativních copingových strategií.
EN
Aim. The empirical study of gender differences in the dispositional mental states of university teachers who were internally displaced during martial law. Methods. A combined research strategy was used, integrating the methods for comparing samples of female and male participants. The different types of dispositional mental states of the respondents were identified by the author’s methodology for the study of dominant mental states. Results. It was discovered that the respondents’ psychological content parameters showed statistically significant gender-based differences. Group 1 prevailed in terms of anxiety (U = 855.0; p = .000). Group 2 prevailed in terms of self-control (U = 975.0; p = .001); awareness of events (U = 707.5; p = .000); expected attitude (U = 1074.0; p = .006); expected result (U = 1067.0; p = .006) and psychological well-being (U = 1113.5; p = .014). The dispositional mental states of a female sample of internally displaced university teachers were represented by five components with a total variation of ∑d = 74.527%. The male sample had four factors with a total variation ∑d = 94.442%. It was stated that there were significant differences between the dispositional mental states of female and male teachers in terms of formal characteristics and content loading of components. Conclusions. The scientific value of empirical facts about the dispositional mental states of university teachers who were internally displaced as a result of wartime action is justified. The importance of incorporating the discovered results into scientific and educational processes is emphasised.
EN
Purpose of the article Mentally demanding job of a media creator (journalist, communicator, etc.) exposes an individual to a high amount of stress. The latter one disturbs the balance of external expectations and internal capabilities, leading to disruption of psychological well-being and reduction of the quality of life. The key to proper stress management is usage of positive coping strategies. The aim of this paper is to research the usage of coping strategies (positive and negative) by the students of mass media – the future media creators. Methodology/methods By means of a standardized questionnaire, we examined the use of positive and negative coping with stress strategies on probands – the future media creators, i.e. students on the faculty of mass media. The questionnaire was distributed personally in amount of 105 with a 95% return of 100 questionnaires. As the sampling method we used the choice of participants based on availability. Findings The results showed that probands elected more positive strategies, and thus they are able to handle stress in a healthy and rational way. As the trend of feminization is constantly evolving in the media, we also examined ability of female students to cope with stress. Our assumption, that women handle stress better than men, was not confirmed. They chose rather negative strategies. On the other hand, the male part of probands was inclined to choose positive strategies. Behind the ability to handle stress in a positive way, in the case of media creators, probably lies the complexity and integrity of personality, and other factors. Limits of research The main limit of presented research is the composition of research sample, i.e. students even though they study in the programs of the mass media, are not the representative sample of the group of media creators in practice. Therefore, we suggest executing similar studies on the sample of the media creators that are already working in the field of media to verify our findings.
EN
Objectives. The purpose of this study is to map the coping strategies used by childhood cancer survivors during the treatment and also in their current life and to find a relationship between coping strategies and the rate of depressive symptomatology. Sample and setting. The research group consists of 65 adolescent childhood cancer survivors (M=18,29; SD=2,71). Coping strategies and depression symptoms were assessed through KIDCOPE and CDI (Children´s Depression Inventory). Hypotheses. Adolescent childhood cancer survivors use significantly more avoidance coping strategies during the treatment. They use significantly more approach coping strategies in longterm remission. Certain coping strategies (e.g. resignation, social support) contribute to lower rate of depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, Wilcoxon signed rank test and Spearman´s correlation through SPSS. Results. Resignation (avoidant coping) and social support (approach coping) were the most used coping strategies during the treatment in both girls and boys. The use of coping strategies in current life was more steady. Cognitive restructuring seems to be effective strategy both during the treatment and in long-term remission in both girls and boys. In contrast emotion regulation, blaming others, social withdrawal and social isolation used both during the treatment and in long-term remission are associated with more depressive symptoms but only in boys. Study limitations. The main study limitation is retrospective information retrieval using questionnaire form several years after treatment that can cause distortion of information by adolescents.
CS
Cíle. Předkládaná studie si pokládá za cíl zmapovat využití strategií zvládání dospívajícími v průběhu léčby a v dlouhodobé remisi pediatrického onkologického onemocnění a vztah jednotlivých strategií zvládání k přizpůsobení se po léčbě, tj. především k míře depresivní symptomatologie. Soubor a metoda. Do studie byla zařazena data od 65 dospívajících po léčbě onkologického onemocnění (M=18,29; SD=2,71). Pro zjištění strategií zvládání a míry depresivní symptomatologie byl administrován dotazník KIDCOPE a Sebeposuzovací škála depresivity pro děti – CDI. Hypotézy. V průběhu léčby dospívající více využívají vyhýbavé strategie zvládání a v dlouhodobé remisi využívají více strategie zvládání zaměřené na přístup. Určité strategie zvládání (např. přijetí/rezignace, sociální opora apod.) přispívají k nižší míře depresivní symptomatologie. Statistická analýza. Pro analýzu dat byla použita deskriptivní statistika, Wilcoxonův test a Spearmanův korelační koeficient s využitím programu SPSS. Výsledky. V průběhu léčby jak dívky, tak chlapci využívali nejvíce rezignaci (vyhýbavé zvládání) a sociální oporu (zvládání zaměřené na přístup). V dlouhodobé remisi je využití strategií zvládání mnohem rovnoměrnější. Kognitivní restrukturace se zdá být užitečnou strategií jak během léčby, tak v remisi onemocnění u dívek i u chlapců. Na rozdíl od využití strategií emoční regulace, obviňování druhých, sociálního stažení se a sociální izolace, které jsou jak během léčby, tak v remisi onemocnění u chlapců spojeny s vyšší mírou depresivní symptomatologie. Omezení studie. Informace ohledně zvládání zátěže během léčby jsou získávány dotazníkovou formou retrospektivně několik let po ukončení léčby, což může vést ke zkreslení poskytovaných údajů ze strany dospívajících.
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