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EN
Globalization processes raise many emotions, controversies and changes in international relations, ties and cooperation. Presented attitudes vary from enthusiasm to its total critic. In the center one finds those ones with positive attitudes towards globalization, or those who take advantages of its pragmatic values. The author assumes that there are three 'schools' of thinking about the globalization and each of them contain extreme and reasonable views. In general one may say that enthusiasts consider globalization as a potential factor of global effectiveness and increase of standards of lives in every corner of our planet. The pessimists think that free market, globalization of trade and financial markets, and of information, lead to one unified global market and cultural patterns. Globalsceptics think that globalization it is only a myth because nothing new has happened to the existing integration of the world market. They reject the thesis of globalists that the power of state has been limited. On the contrary, the states are the major players and architects of international economy. The third group, the supporters of global transformations, think that the contemporary globalization has far reaching consequences for the economic, political and socio-cultural relations. The author presents a table with 14 most important issues with views of both fractions of globalists. Other problems analyzed by the author are: notions and characteristics of globalization, attitudes towards globalization, global problems and their classification (socio-economic and civilization-culture relations, problems connected with the scientific and technical progress and problems of the milieu). As the last issue the author analyzes the impact of the international terrorism on globalization.
EN
The article is divided into two parts of which the first provides the reader with a concise description of the globalization process whereas the second part analyses the impact of globalization on changes in enterprise strategy. By analysing the evolution of the globalization process, the author shows the prime mover of globalization in the form of a series of specific favourable conditions for its development, and developing processes in the form of economic spheres which are significant for its development, and its characteristic features that result from these activities. The second larger part of the article presents an analysis of changes in the strategies of enterprises caused by globalization, especially those in the general strategy prepared at the level of the board of directors, competition strategy (created at the line-of-business level) and marketing strategy.
EN
Tourism as a modern phenomenon is connected with numerous trends and processes attracting attention of the social scientists in Slovakia. The case study deals with the strategies of local management in tourism. The aim of the managers is to transform the city to the attractive destination for tourists. To accomplish it, however, they have to balance between globalization and local processes and constraints.
EN
Since 1991 the Committee on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises (CIME) and Committee on Capital Movements and Invisible Transactions (CMIT) work on joint project of multilateral pact concerning investments. Multinational Agreement on Investment (MAI) is considered to be a new quality in international treaties. It requires from the would-be participating states unconditional acceptance of obligations stemming out of those treaties and defines rules, which the involved states have to apply when agreement on international investment is signed. Such treaties are defining regulations and describing methods of solving problems, allowing the states to bring their cases to the international courts. Often voiced criticism against MAI can be seen as an effect of deep reservations of some nations concerning the world globalization. The critical attitudes can be summed up in five points: 1. Economic globalization went too far. Free movement of goods is not favored in every country. 2. The balance between the state and the market has been destroyed. The corporations have too much say. 3. Globalization is a challenge for a national sovereignty. 4. Globalization reduces transparency and political responsibility moving authority from elected representatives to non-elected international bureaucrats. 5. Globalization limits national and local possibilities making political and economic choices.
EN
The article dwells on the complex problem of globalisation and, in particular, on its influence on both modern Western and traditional Arab societies. It presents the dilemmas related to the contact of local culture and the modern one in the context of the Arab world. Apart from this, it touches upon some of the basic problems related to globalisaton, such as the asymmetrical development of particular regions of the world, the restricted role of the nation state, the impact of globalisation on the social environment and the emergence of trends towards particularism, aimed against the process of uniformising the world.
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The multiple effects of migrants’ transnationalism such as social networks, migrant associations, collective remittances, international business activity including investments in production and investment of venture capital in countries of origin, international trade networks, remittances, brain circulation, outsourcing, formation of global skilled labor market and circular migration are analyzed in the article. The influence of these effects on the development of origin and destination countries is researched. The measures for taking advantage of transnationalism for the countries’ economic and human development are suggested.
EN
The article discusses Polish contributions to globalization. It is necessary to make suitable decisions in economic and social policy in order to prevail benefits from the globalization process over the necessary costs. Analyzing the globalization impact on decisions made in the field of macro economy it is worth highlighting the range in which the country can pursue the independent macro economy policy and ask about its effectiveness. Polish membership in the European Union is a fundamental phase increasing benefits from globalization.
EN
This study focuses on the problems of project management and operational management of tour operators and travel agencies in the context of their internationalization and globalization. In theory and practice related to the impact of globalization on tourism there are a lot of questionable opinion that either emphasize the positive aspect of this impact, or suggest that the tourism industry is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises, with limited ability to carry out a systematic and simultaneous operations (rotation) in a dozen countries. This paper is trying to analyze the problems of the mentioned controversy and to present such a model (phases model) in both project management and operational management of tour operators and travel agencies, which would allow for effective action both at local and global effects and avoiding threats posed by globalization.
EN
Globalization is currently a key factor determining the development of world economy. Therefore, its processes are vital for particular state economies which should be noticed and appreciated in those countries. The authors deal with the problem of relationship between globalization and developmental processes in the Belorussian economy. The article places emphasis on the level of the openness of the Belorussian economy. The authors emphasize the fact of a limited share of Belarus in the global economy. At the same time, however, they point out the gradual process of internationalization of the Belorussian economy.
EN
The article is devoted to the contemporary developments of the 16-century-old professional philosophy in Georgia. The term 'contemporary' here defines the period after 1953 in soviet and post-soviet Georgian history, when totalitarianism remained, albeit in its milder form. Along with the recognized philosophers (Sh. Nutsubidze, K. Bakradze, S. Danelia, S. Tsereteli, Z. Kakabadze, et al.) the achievements of young philosophers working in Georgia, as well as abroad, are shown in the article.
EN
The objective of this paper is to contribute to the explanation of globalization's impact on the decisive changes in the structure of the competitiveness relations and based on this, to argue for a need of a new understanding of the competitiveness. The main issue is to identify the basic areas in which processes determining the character of globalization - and thus also character of the changes in structure of the competitiveness relations and criterions of competitiveness - are formed and progressing. The identification involves multilevel net of a global competitiveness, shifts in role of state and multidimensional character of a competitiveness. Based on this identification, the framework of the global competitiveness strategy is being outlined.
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The author of this article makes an attempt to point out that 'contemporary conditions', especially globalization processes exert a significant influence on the functioning of the public sector and, consequently, on its model approach. Accordingly, neither traditional model of a welfare state nor neoliberal economy model can fully explain the functions and duties of the public sector and its relation to the environment. This indicates a need for a new model of public sector which will be adequate to the fast-moving environment, even if we assume some stability of certain elements of the sector.
EN
One can find multiple reasons, why companies, regions or nations group together into entities or networks, but there exists several key reasons. Among them: the phenomena of globalization, technological progress, new global opportunities and risks, higher customer requirements and higher value of information and know-how. Globalization is the dynamic complex of processes that has opened; linked and unified the globe since the end of the 19th century. Such unification has not had an occurrence before, even in the time of the Roman Empire. But it is obvious that globalization has never led to the rapid economic rise all over the world, but it has led to the bigger differences between rich and poor. This work concerns on the identification of the economic globalization in terms of its evolution in the first part of this article and on the actual development of globalization and related trends and risks in the second part.
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Content available remote CITY ANTHROPOLOGY AND MULTICULTURALISM
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EN
Multiculturalism has seemed an important term for ethnology for quite a long time. Alongside such notions as, for example, globalization, hybridism and transculturalism, it belongs to those terms which best describe the specificity of contemporary culture. At the same time, from the moment when cultural anthropology began exploring more closely the urban interior, multiculturalism became one of the most important features describing the nature of city culture. Within the field of the anthropology of cities many different theories and discourses of multiculturalism are germinating. Social diversity, cultural strangeness or the heterogeneity of the city style of life all are finding their own 'special' anthropological interpretations. This essay focuses most of all on the presentation of various ethnological approaches to the issue of multiculturalism viewed in the light of the anthropology of cities. It points to the ambiguity of the issue of multiculturalism, which appears as one of the most distinctive features of metropolitan communities.
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The article deals with problems of an inception and existence of sovereign wealth funds in a present world, with their size, types and goals. These funds do not present an economic problem, but they invoke fears concerning a national security and a state sovereignty in case of their entrance into the sensitive industries as a defence industry, energy, an infrastructure etc. in host countries. So there is an effort to establish an international regime of this fund performance which would increase especially their transparency and accountability. Except from it there is discussed the existence of these fund as one form of an external imbalance manifestation and also the manifestation of a changing hegemony in today’s world from developed countries in favour of Asiatic states.
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In the past two decades, family has been undergoing sudden and exceptional transformations. Apart from the unquestionable achievements of globalization, it is necessary to point out that an era marked with an indefinite character, relativity and axiological chaos is coming. In order to realize the dangers and threats which can affect our families, the author wants to draw our attention to several phenomena and tendencies which are on the increase. These are: the degeneration of family traditions, the decreasing index of three-generation families, the undermining of parental authority, the marginalization of the educational function, parents' economic migration, the lack of time for the family, the weakening of family bonds, the decrease of activity index, the increase of divorce rate, the spread of cohabitations.
EN
The article deals with a discussion on two trends in modern economy, i.e. globalization and regionalization and their relationship with the economic policy. Undoubtedly, both processes require an active economic policy on the part of governments which would allow to meet the challenge connected with the above mentioned processes. Research into economic systems confirm the idea that economic policy has always played a significant role in the achievement of a particular level of advance by a given country. So far, none of the schools of economic thought has expressed doubts concerning its very existence. However, we can speak of different degrees of state interventionism and different results of the adopted policy that is to say its effectiveness in achieving development and solving economic problems of the country. Global corporations appear to be especially tough partners for the state as they take full advantage of the rules of free market economy to intensify their income.
EN
The more of the world economy globalize and the role of FDI increases. FDI have impact on development of regions and they decrease the differences between them. Although the number of FDI in Poland increases rapidly, the total value of them do not have enough influence on Polish economy growth. Considering the number of FDI, from early 90ís Poland has been a leader among other countries of Middle-East Europe. The main factor of the FDI flow was the transformation of economy system, what established law, economic and infrastructure condition. Membership in the OECD (1996) helped Poland in setting up all the procedures and law system optimal for foreign investors. The attractiveness of Poland increased under the influence of becoming a member of the NATO (1999) and the EU (2004).
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Content available remote Globalne sieci biznesowe – efekt globalizacji korporacyjnej
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EN
The aim of the paper is presentation of the concept of the global business network (GBN) as the model of regulation structures which are the basic characteristics of the largest enterprises, main actors in corporate globalization. The development of GBN is presented in the context of enterprises market changes which are results of the global processes evolution. The key point of the paper is argument that the largest transnational corporations tend to realizing their strategic goals by creating of global business networks. This solution is the most effective one. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first one the evolution of globalization is presented. In the second part the idea of global business network is depicted. In the last part author comments on the case studies.
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Content available remote A GLOBAL IDENTITY - THE INDIAN DILEMMA
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The paper explores different aspects of political, cultural and economical position of India in the globalizing world. The special scope of the article is national and cultural identity of Indian subcontinent. The change of the Indian nationalistic thought is also discussed. The article offers some images of encounter of Indian culture with so called Western cultures as seen trough the lenses of Indian cultural products (i. e. Bollywoood movies) or Indian political discourse. The author evokes technological and economical encounters between the India and globalizing world - seeing them - as for example Indian IT experts' integration into global IT system, as a 'first step to globalization of the Indian mind'.
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