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EN
It has always been a truly tantalizing question for the scholars of Herborn intelligentsia in Transylvania: as to why Bisterfeld did not complete his publication project that began with the famous De uno Deo which was designed to refute Johann Crellʼs ideas and was destined to be a companion to Johann Heinrich Alstedʼs Prodromus religionis triumphantis, which was in turn written against Johann Völkel. Although the essay cannot answer this question entirely, it draws attention to some fundamental facts which could shed more light on the issue stating that Bisterfeld did finish the sequel, but apparently never published it. In order to achieve this, the essay discusses briefl y a letter by Jean Mellet sent to Adrian Heereboord later published as dedication to Bisterfeldʼs very rare Isagoge encyclopaedica, and Melletʼs Theosophia naturalis which seems to be a treatise originally written by Bisterfeld. Having a look at these sources, the author formulates a hypothesis claiming that the continuation of the De uno Deo, that is the separate publication of the Mysterium pietatis ostensum, became rather obsolete in the eyes of Bisterfeld at a certain point, and consequently he incorporated it into his Sciagraphia symbioticae, one of the most ingenious works of the late Bisterfeld in Transylvania, posthumously published in 1661. In addition, it is highly presumable that a further posthumous version of the Mysterium pietatis ostensum saw the light in 1662, this time, under the name of Jean Mellet and entitled as Theosophia naturalis, sive mysterium pietatis ostensum.
EN
The study of the items illustrated on mural and panel painting, in connection with still existing items, can document medieval material culture. The representation of chalices on almost half of such paintings from Transylvania is a proof of its important symbolist value in religious rituals. These representations also certify the high level of the goldsmiths’ art from Transylvania. The present study is intended both as a repertory and an analysis of these sacral objects illustrated in mural and panel paintings.
DE
Die Umstände des Aufenthalts von Comenius in Ungarn sind in der internationalen Fachliteratur ziemlich bekannt; alle wichtigeren Comenius-Monographien (z. B. J. Kvačala, M. Blekastad, J. Kumpera, F. Karšai, G. Geréb usw.) widmen ihm ein selbständiges Kapitel. Nichtsdestoweniger hat Katalin S. Németh im Jahre 1997 behauptet, dass di ausländischen Forscher so gut wie keine Aufmerksamkeit den politischen Ideen des sich in Ungarn aufhaltenden Comenius und des ihn mehrmals besuchenden Mikuláš Drabík geschenkt hätten. Laut Katalin S. Németh ist dessen Grund in erster Linie darin zu suchen, dass die ausländischen Forscher die Ergebnisse der ungarischen Fachliteratur wegen der Sprachberriere nicht nutzbar machen könnten. Ein typisches Beispiel ist das 1992 in Wien gehaltene tschechisch-österreichische Comenius-Kolloquium (Jan Amos Comenius und die Politik seiner Zeit, Hrsg. Karlheinz Mack, Wien – München): keine von den im Sammelband beinhalteten Studien nimmt auf ungarische Verfasser Bezug, obwohl sich die Beiträge auch spezifisch mit Ungarn befassten. An dieser eigentümlichen Situation sind natürlich auch die ungarischen Forcher schuldig, da sie – abgesehen von einem Sammelband von 1973 (Comenius and Hungary, ed. by Éva Földes – István Mészáros, Budapest) – die Ergebnisse ihrer Forschungen fast ausschließlich auf Ungarisch veröffentlich haben. Unter Berücksichtigung der neuesten Forschungsergebnisse erweist der Autor, dass Ungarn und Siebenbürgen in den politischen Ideen von Comenius gar keine marginale Rolle spielten. Gleichzeitig unterstreicht er auch, dass die Konzeptionen der unmittelbaren politischen Teilnehmer und die von Comenius nicht immer übereinstimmten. Comenius und sein ganz Europa umspannender Kreis entwickelten eine eigenartige intellektuelle Ideologie, die des Autors Meinung nach von den professionellen Politikern nicht so ernst genommen wurde, wie es manche früheren Forschungen andeuten. Comenius wollte z. B. den Fürsten von Siebenbürgen, Georg II. Rákoczi dazu bereden, mit Hilfe der Türken und des westungarischen Hochadels (zunächst des kroatischen Bans Miklós Zrínyi) die ungarische Krone zu erlangen, aber weder der Fürst noch Zrínyi waren mit diesem Plan einverstanden. Comenius hat Ungarn auch nach seinem Aufbruch von Sárospatak nicht vergessen: in Amsterdam wurde er von zahlreichen ungarischen fahrenden Schülern aufgesucht (Péter Körmendi, János Nadányi, Mihály Tofeus usw.). Außerdem weist der Autor nach, dass Comenius auch in der Veröffentlichung der Biographie von Miklós Zrínyi im Jahre 1663 in London eine Rolle spielte. Daneben hat der Autor auch hervorgehoben, dass diese intellektuelle Ideologie – eine eigenartige Konzeption von Mitteleuropa, Habsburgerfeindlichkeit, Puritanismus und Türkenfreundlichkeit – kein dominierendes Element der zeitgenössischen politischen Strömungen war, sondern die zusammenhaltende Kraft einer Gruppe, die sich eben dadurch von anderen Komponenten der Gesellschaft abgrenzte. Diese Ideologie, die von einem politischen Gesichtspunkt aus betrachtet unter den damaligen Machtverhältnissen praktisch irreal war, hat versacht, dass – trotz der gesellschaftlichen und kulturellen Unterschiede – solche Mitglieder zur gleichen Zeit zur Gruppe gehörten, wie Comenius und Drabík, der nicht einmal Latein konnte (um nur diese zwei extremen Beispiele zu nennen). Die Ideologie hat also die Gruppe homogenisiert, die aus diesem ideologischen Kapital natürlicherweise auch politisches Kapital schlagen wollte, um dadurch wirtschaftliche und gesellschaftliche Vorteile zu gewinnen. In diesem Übergangsprozesess benötigten sie die Persönlichkeit und Tätigkeit von Zrínyi, der die Möglichkeit hatte, sich einer – zwar sehr indirekt wirkenden – holländisch-englischen Propagandabewegung anzuschließen, und dadurch sein Wort hören zu lassen.
EN
The article includes a brief overview of basic elements of Romania-Slovak relations, for one thing in connection to Slovak colonization of the southern Hungary in the 18th and the 19th century, and for another at the level of mutual cultural and political relations in Hungary and in the first half of the 20th century. It also reflects significant personalities from both sides, particularly Romanian journalist – Slovak Gustav Augustini. Romania-Slovak relations at the cultural level in the 19th century were based on the real position of Slovaks and Transylvanian and Banatian Romanian in the Hungary as oppressed national minorities. By contrast to Slovaks, Hungarian Romanian had some support in Romanian state. They faced to magyarization pressure together, so their representations arrived to mutual cooperation and cultural contacts. Cultural relations of Slovaks and Romanians in the 20th century had not any negative aspects, symbols or connections. However, in some periods, there was a mark of disinterest of the public in culture of the other one.
EN
Within its territory, which had been extended by the peace treaties following WW1, Romania intended to create a nation-state that is also religiously uniform. Therefore, minorities in Transylvania meant a twofold problem, as they were both Hungarians and Roman Catholics. Just as Romanians had the denominational schools as fountainheads of national/ethnic awakening during Hungarian authority, now these schools served the safekeeping of the Hungarian national sentiment. This is why governments strived to suppress them as much as possible, even if they were obliged by international treaties to protect them. With regard to governmental actions and public attitude, four periods can be distinguished. In our paper, we aim at monitoring and evaluating the process in an analytic manner.
EN
Previous field researches in the location called Zoltan-“Nisipărie” revealed a settlement with several different cultural layers, among which those of the Noua Culture seem to be dominant. Along the past years researchers have conducted both systematic archaeological diggings as well as geophysical researches. Through the scientific research presented in the following report we set out to highlight the limits and structure of the settlement with the help of magnetometry. The results we obtained allow us to outline the eastern limit of the intensely inhabited settlement. Judging by the magnetic anomalies we identified, we can speak about a large number of pits that stand at the basis of the archaeological structures found in the Noua settlement at Zoltan “Nisipărie”.
EN
The existence of fortifications is attached to the emergence of formalized territorial units of a quasi-political nature. The current paper examines Middle Bronze Age settlement sites, metal finds and natural resources of Central north-western Transylvania. Our aim is to investigate the differences, transformations and the dynamics of settlement systems in the study area during the Middle Bronze Age using cartographic documents and data relating to the landscape around the sites (using satellite images, aerial photographs and geophysical measurements) stored in a geographic information system (GIS). The research also draws on macro-regional palaeoenvironmental data on Central north-western Romania. Modelling the territories of Transylvanian prehistoric communities provides information about the division of space and possible land use strategies. A uniformly general model cannot be applied in case of the Transylvanian Middle Bronze Age settlement system. The settlement founding culture’s different characteristics, the special topographical and ecological conditions of the distribution areas determined the quality of the established settlement network. There is evidence that Middle Bronze Age chiefdoms form peer polities controlling territories of different size along one or a larger number of river valleys. Our approach reflects the current stage of research of the subject; the future field research is expected to bring in new, more conclusive evidence in this matter.
EN
Pliocene fish species based on skeleton remains and associated teeth ever reported from the inner Carpathian area in Romania in the Braşov Basin (Baraolt sub-basin), which refers to a pike (Esox sp.). The fish fossils illustrating a large-sized specimen originate from the South Racoş coal open pit (Racoşu de Sus, Covasna County), in the so-called “Formation with Limnocardium” (Dacian, Lower Pliocene). Comparisons with osteological material of recent pikes originating from various localities in Romania are presented. The associated mollusc fauna known from the formation that yielded the pike remains suggests the presence of a lake with a stratified water column in the Baraolt sub-basin.
PL
The private Polish elementary school in Lupeni was founded in 1929 based on the Romanian Private Learning Act of 1925 permitting the organisation of minority schools. It was created in a magyarised and romanised environment and dealt with the education of Polish miners’ children. Wilhelm Zöller became the organiser and the first teacher of the school on behalf of the Polish School Motherland in Romania. After two years of operation, the school came under the patronage of the Polish School Association in Romania. Under his tutelage in the 1936/1937 school year, the school became public and its rank in the local community increased. It was also active during the World War II. With the consent of the Romanian Minister of Education, in 1946 it became a Polish public school consisting of 7 classes. It was supported by the “Polish House in Romania” Association. This school was the only Polish school in Transylvania that existed the longest in this part of Romania. When the Polish miners and teachers left Poland in 1948, the school was liquidated.
EN
Despite the development of the iconographic programs, the frescoes painted by the Grecu brothers remind us not only of the large ensembles beyond the Carpathians in Walachia and Moldova but also other Transylvanian decorations. These frescoes express not only the spirit of the time or the mentality of the community to which they belonged, but they also represented an opportunity to show the painters’ originality and personality, their need for personal affirmation and artistic individuality, connected to a new sensitivity of a given historical context. The representation of the inhabiting nations in Transylvania in the Passion’s Cycle highlights the disadvantaged status of the Romanian people who were oppressed by the privileged nations: by the Habsburg military force, the inequitable judgement of Saxons and the torments inflicted by Hungarians through their policies. All of these recreate mutatis mutandis the dramatic setting in which Christ was crucified.
EN
The topic of Otherness has been investigated from the point of view of popular culture and popular fiction studies, especially on the basis of the multiracial social environments of the United States. The challenges of addressing real or potential conflicts in areas characterised by an ethnic puzzle are to some extent similar, but at the same time differ substantively from the political, legal, and fictional world of “race.” This paper investigates these differences in the ways of overcoming ethnic stereotyping on the basis of examples taken from post-World War II crime fiction of Southern Europe, and Middle East. In communist and post-communist Eastern Central Europe there are not many instances of mediational crime fiction. This paper will point to the few, although notable exceptions, while hypothesizing on the factors that could favor in the foreseeable future the emergence and expansion of such artistic experiments in the multiethnic and multicultural province of Transylvania.
EN
The article focuses on the process, events and attempts from the end of the 17ᵗʰ and the beginning of the 18ᵗʰ century to unite the Romanian Orthodox Church or rather a part of it belonging to the Orthodox Metropolitan of Transylvania with the Roman Catholic Church. The author analyzes the challenges and consequences of such a union for the Romanian identity. To overcome the controversies and strengthen a common Romanian identity, the cultural program of the Transylvanian School movement was initiated.
EN
The article aims to show a little-known chapter in the history of the Romanian communism, the anti-regime activities of dissidents from the Hungarian minority in Transylvania. It argues that the growing repressions of the Romanian authorities against ethnic Hungarians caused the protest activities of their representatives not only within the RCP structures, but also from the intellectual environment. The particular dissidents from the Hungarian community performed their opposition attitude in the beginning mainly at the domestic level. After they did not meet any constructive reaction from the Romanian state, they tried to draw attention on their situation abroad. However, none of these activities met any real success, especially because it was almost impossible to develop any form of organized and coordinated dissent in such a harsh political environment, like the one existing in Ceauşescu’s Romania.
EN
This work sets out to list and describe the liturgical vestments present in panel and mural paintings of churches located in southern Transylvania. The surviving body of such vestments on display in the ”Brukenthal” National Museum of Sibiu and that of the Black Church of Brașov not only confirms their use in religious services, but also the fact that they served as models for Transylvanian ecclesiastical painting. Of Western derivation, this type of vestment reflects a way of thinking and stands testament to social status or to the different hierarchies within the church. It is, at the same time, an indication of the development of this kind of craft, produced by specialized workshops.
EN
The article concerns poetry of Sándor Kányádi, one of the most famous and influential Hungarian writers from Transylvania. The main purpose of the article is to analyse the political persecution of the communist dictatorship in Romania against Hungarian writers and to estimate the meaning of the period of political changes 1989/90. The author interprets the poem Armenian gravestones from the collection Mane and skull, in which Kányádi gave up his earlier idyllic poetics and chose a poetry of bitter consciousness of the world’s constant change. In the interpretation of the poems, the author focuses on explaning a few crucial terms as for example: „Transylvanian landscape”, decline of memory about national minorities and homeland in the poetry of Kányádi.
PL
Artykuł został poświęcony potransformacyjnej poezji jednego znajważniejszych twórców węgierskich w Siedmiogrodzie, Sándorowi Kányádiemu. Autorka analizuje sytuację polityczną dyktatury komunistycznej w Rumunii wobec pisarzy węgierskich i odwilż kulturalną w latach 1989/90. Tekst został oparty na analizie wiersza Ormiańskie nagrobki z tomu Grzywai czaszka, w którym dotychczasowa poetyka idylliczna została zastąpiona poetyką gorzkiej świadomości zmieniającego się świata. W interpretacji wiersza skupiono się na wykazaniu znaczenia takich pojęć jak „krajobraz siedmiogrodzki”, zanikanie pamięci o mniejszościach narodowych, „ojcowizna” w poezji S. Kányádiego.
EN
Among other things, the transformation in Romania has allowed for the participation o f the representatives of national minorities in the political system o f state. This is illustrated by the case of Hungarians, who according to the 2011 census account for over 1,237,000 of the population, and that of approximately 37,000 Germans. Both groups take a regular and active part in both national and local elections. Hungarians are represented by the UDMR, a group that wins support in excess o f 5% o f the votes, thus regularly getting over 20 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and approximately ten seats in the Senate. The Germans are represented by the FDGR, with considerably weaker support, which translates into only a single seat in the parliament. Both minorities play a significant role in regional elections, even though the German population is considerably smaller than that o f the Hungarians. The town o f Sibiuis one example o f their electoral success. The significance o f both groups should not be expected to change significantly in the future. Unlike in the case o f the Hungarians, support for the Germans is higher than might be expected from their number. This follows from the fact that the issue of the German minority in Romania has never stirred such tensions as that o f the Hungarians, both in domestic and international relations. Therefore, casting a vote for the FDGR does not have to follow from being a member o f the German minority, allowing the party to win potential voters.
PL
Transformacja w Rumunii umożliwiła m.in. udział reprezentantów mniejszości narodowych w systemie politycznym państwa. Przykładem ilustrującym to zjawisko są Węgrzy, licząc wg spisu z 2011 r. ponad 1,237 mln osób, oraz Niemcy, liczący ok. 37 tys. osób. Obie grupy biorą regularny, aktywny udział w wyborach na szczeblu ogólnopaństwowym jak i lokalnym. Węgrzy są reprezentowani przez UDMR, ugrupowanie osiągające poparcie wyższe niż 5% głosów, co umożliwia regularne posiadanie w Izbie Deputowanych ponad 20, a w Senacie około 10 miejsc. Niemcy są z kolei reprezentowani przez FDGR. Dużo niższe poparcie przekłada się na zaledwie 1 miejsce w parlamencie. Mniejszości te odgrywają istotną rolę w wyborach lokalnych, także Niemcy, przykładem wyborczych sukcesów jest miasto Sibiu. W przyszłości nie należy oczekiwać zasadniczej zmiany w znaczeniu odgrywanym przez obie grupy. W odróżnieniu od Węgrów, poparcie dla Niemców jest wyższe niż liczebność grupy. Jest to pochodnąfaktu, iż kwestia mniejszości niemieckiej w Rumunii nigdy nie wywoływała takich napięć jak Węgrzy, zarówno w stosunkach wewnętrznych, jak i międzypaństwowych. Z tego powodu oddanie głosu na FDGR nie musi się łączyć z przynależnością do mniejszości niemieckiej, co pozwala na pozyskanie wyborców.
EN
The Hungarian resentiments which were the result of the historic domination of the Hungarian nation over the territories of the Kingdom of Hungary before the treaty of Trianon, muted during the communist times, revived after 1989. The explosion of a painful collective memory of imperial Hungary resulted in symbolic neocolonial attempts at restoring the lost lands. The nostalgia is particularly visible in the valuative images of the Romanian Transylvania which is eagerly explored in the contemporary Hungarian cinema. The analysis of the newest films whose location was in Transylvania, is aimed at revealing the means of expression used to mentally objectify this region.
PL
Po roku 1989 na Węgrzech odżyły wytłumione w czasach komunizmu resentymenty, będącespadkiem po historycznym okresie dominacji narodu węgierskiego nad terytorium KrólestwaWęgier sprzed traktatu w Trianon. Eksplozja bolesnej, zbiorowej pamięci imperialnej Węgrówzaowocowała próbami symbolicznej, neokolonialnej restytucji utraconych ziem. Narodowetęsknoty uwidoczniły się szczególnie jaskrawo w specyficznych, wartościujących przedstawieniachrumuńskiego Siedmiogrodu, chętnie eksplorowanego we współczesnym kinie węgierskim.Analiza najnowszych filmów usytuowanych w Transylwanii, ma na celu odsłonięcie środków wyrazu, służących mentalnemu upodrzędnieniu owego regionu.
EN
Research on the emergence of institutionalized inequality has traditionally maintained an analytical divide between lived institutions that affect daily life and performed institutions materialized in mortuary contexts. Here, we argue that convergence or divergence between lived and performed contexts reveals key aspects of past social organization. When combined, mortuary archaeology and bioarchaeology provide a methodological framework well suited to evaluate the coherence or dissonance of such institutions. Three case studies from prehistoric Europe highlight how new insights gained by studying tension between institutions, identities and experiences across social dimensions can transform our understanding of the development of institutionalized inequality.
EN
The article deals with the well and long debated issue of the disappearance of celtic culture from Transylvania during the first half of the 2nd century bc, followed by the emergence and flowering of an archaeological culture attributed to the dacians. A comprehensive review is made of histo- riographic theories promoted in literature over the years on the replacement of cultural facies in the eastern carpathian basin: the dacian scenario, the bastarnian scenario, the mixed bastarnian and getian scenario and finally, the Padea-Panagjurski Kolonii scenario. special attention is paid to the archaeological record on the old dacian element in Transylvania (e.g., the settlements at bratei and olteni, the cemeteries at olteni and săvârşin) in the period of celtic supremacy and to the relationship between indigenous and non-native populations in the study area during the late iron Age. The discussion is rounded off with an analysis of interaction between the inhabit- ants of Transylvania and their neighbours, e.g., scordisci and the bastarnae. The author pro- poses to interpret the rise of the dacians as an effect rather than cause of the disappearance of celts from Transylvania
EN
Within the confines of the small Szekely village of Firtosváralja, on the Firtos Mountain, rising a thousand meters above sea level, a large quantity of Byzantine gold coins was found in 1831. Later these coins were sold out by their discoverers. Given this, it is hardly surprising that a hundred years later only sixteen specimens of coins from this hoard could have been identified. Since 1960, three more gold coins, kept in the Numismatic Cabinet of the National History Museum of Transylvania in Cluj-Napoca, have been identified as belonging to this modest collection. Although the coin assemblage from Firtosváralja entered scholarly literature and has repeatedly come up in issues of concerning the early medieval settlement history of Transylvania, there has been no source study relating either to the discovery of the hoard or to the coins themselves. After years of archival research in Romania and Hungary, it was now possible to track down some of the contemporary official reports on the find, which capture the true history of the discovery of the gold coins. It was also found that already in the mid-nineteenth century, several scholars from Transylvania dealt intensively with the hoard investigated here. Many descriptions and illustrations of hitherto unknown coins from Firtosváralja are among the preserved legacy of these researchers. Thus, the number of coins for which we now have a full set of data, or at least the information about the issuer, increased to 54 pieces. Eleven gold coins preserved to this day in the museums of Székelyudvarhely and Cluj as well as other issuances known thanks to pencil frottage drawings or wax impressions allow to describe precisely the group of coins of our interest here. The detailed analysis of the oldest information about the hoard proves that associating of the solidi of Emperor Maurice (582–602) and Heraclius (610–641) with the hoard from Firtosváralja is ambiguous; hence the issuances by Justinian the Great (527–565) are the youngest coins from this set. This means that the gold coins accumulated here since the 430s are likely to have been deposited much earlier than previously assumed. Based on this new-early-dating, an interpretation, hitherto not offered, of the late Roman-early Byzantine coin hoard of Firtosváralja is also presented.
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