The subject of analysis in this article are cosmonyms derived both from the names of mythological gods and heroes (or appellatives relating to them) and from zoonyms (or appellatives relating to animals). I take into consideration contemporary names of all astronomical objects (planets, planetoids, moons, stars, constellations, clusters and nebulae). Attracting attention in cosmonymy is the particular mechanism of naming stellar constellations, where the one doing the naming creates the object of nomination to a great degree. Cosmonyms that have developed as a result of transonymization and onymization are older names, since at present names made of letters and numbers predominate. In all the names discussed, metaphor played a key role.