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PL
Rynek pomp ciepła na terenie Unii Europejskiej jest dalece regulowany. Ich rozwój w poszczególnych krajach związany jest głównie z działaniami legislacyjnymi, zarówno na poziomie samej Unii jak i na poziomie krajów członkowskich. Artykuł stara się odpowiedzieć na pytanie, dlaczego w niektórych krajach Unii Europejskiej rynek ten rozwija się szybciej a w innych wolniej. Okazuje się, że dwoma głównymi aktami prawnymi, które determinują rynek są: Rozporządzenie Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady (UE) nr 517/2014 z dnia 16 kwietnia 2074 r. w sprawie fluorowanych gazów cieplarnianych i uchylenia rozporządzenia (WE) nr 842/2006; Dyrektywa Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady 2008/50/WE z dnia 27 maja 2008 roku w sprawie jakości powietrza i czystszego powitrza dla Europy (Dz. Urz. UE I 152 z 7 7.06,2008, str. 1). Przy czym to właśnie wewnętrzna legislacja krajów członkowskich, oparto na tych rozporządzeniach zupełnie inaczej kształtuje te rynki.
EN
Heat pump market in the European Union is under many regulation. Their development in individual countries is associated mainly with the legislative activities, both at the Union and at Member State level. Article attempts to answer the question, why in some European Union countries, this market is growing faster and slower in others. It turns out that the two main legal acts that determine the market are: Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council (EU) No 577/2074 of 76 April 2074. On fluorinated greenhouse gases and repealing Regulation (EC) No 842/2006; Directive of the European Parliament and Council Directive 2008/50 /EC of 27 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe (Acts. Office. EU L 152, 11.06.2008, p. 1). At the same time it is the internal legislation of the Member States, based on those regulations differently shaped these markets.
PL
W pracy zostały przedstawione najczęściej spotykane metody odtajania parowników powietrznych pomp ciepła. Szczególną uwagą zwrócono na sposób inicjacji procesu odtajania. Spośród wymienionych metod inicjacji odtajania metoda z wykorzystaniem sztucznych sieci neuronowych wydaje sią jedyną, która w niedalekiej przyszłości jest w stanie spowodować obniżenie zużycia energii w omawianym procesie, a tym samym przyczyni się do poprawy efektywności całej pompy ciepła.
EN
The paper presents the most common methods for defrosting air heat pumps evaporators. Particular attention was paid to the way defrost initiation process. Of these methods of initiation defrost method using artificial neural networks seems to be the only one in the near future is able to cause a reduction of energy consumption in this process and thus contribute to improving the efficiency of the whole heat pump.
EN
Introduction. Badminton is considered a sport requiring high levels of all constituent speeds. Few available instances of research in this area maintain that badminton players are characterised by high levels of movement speed, nervous conductivity and agility. Aim of the Study. This work was aimed to determine the times of simple reaction in male and female badminton players by assessing differences between badminton players and controls. Assessment of reaction times also involved a comparison of results obtained during the experiments with standards available in the literature. Material and Methods. Subjects were divided into four groups: two groups of top level junior players (10 boys and 6 girls); 26 non-playing boys and 6 non-playing girls. The measurements were conducted with the use of the MRK-80 reaction meter. Results. Arithmetic means, minimum and maximum values, standard deviation and coeffi - cient of variation were calculated. Student’s t-test was conducted to compare the results in the groups. Conclusions. Badminton players display shorter reaction times than non-players, which is probably the consequence of practicing badminton. The difference was found between results of all tests taken by boys and most tests taken by girls. The comparison of the obtained reaction times displayed by badminton players with the available standards proved that their values were mostly average, which might be the consequence of the fact that in badminton, like in many other sports, more complex factors, e.g. choice reactions, anticipation, etc., are of far greater signifi cance.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań wpływu wielowarstwowych powłok CVD oraz PVD na ostrzach skrawających z węglika spiekanego na wybrane parametry warstwy wierzchniej po toczeniu wykończeniowym stali konstrukcyjnej C45 (1.0503). Badania wykazały, że wpływ powłok przeciwzużyciowych na stan WW jest istotny. W przypadku wszystkich badanych ostrzy odnotowano wzrost stopnia umocnienia WW wraz ze wzrostem wartości posuwu.
EN
The results of research on the influence of multi-layer CVD and PVD coatings on carbide cutting tools on selected parameters of the surface layer after finishing turning of C45 steel (1.0503) are described. The research showed a significant effect of antiwear coatings on the condition of surface layer. In the case of all tested blades, an increase in the strengthening level of the surface layer was noted along with the increase of the feed rate.
EN
The paper presents an attempt to evaluate the impact of coal and coal mine methane cocombustion on the physics of the heat exchange in an 140 t/h pulverized-coal boiler through an analysis of 21 combinations of the boiler operating parameters – three different boiler loads (50, 75, and 100%) and seven values of the fired gas thermal contribution (0–60%). The obtained results are the temperature distribution of flue gas and steam in the boiler characteristic points, the heat transfer coefficient values for the boiler individual elements expressing the nature of changes in the heat transfer and the change in the boiler efficiency depending on how much gas is actually fired. An increase in the amount of co-fired gas involves a temperature increase along the flue gas path. This is the effect of the reduction in the amount of heat collected by the evaporator in the furnace. For these reason, the flue gas temperature at the furnace outlet rises by 9 K on average per a 0.1 increment in the fired gas thermal contribution. The temperature rise improves the heat transfer in the boiler heat exchangers – for the first- and the secondstage superheater the improvement totals 2.8% at a 10 pp. increase in the fired gas thermal contribution. However, the rise in the flue gas temperature at the boiler outlet involves a drop in the boiler efficiency (by 0.13 pp. for a rise in the fired gas thermal contribution by 0.1).
EN
The article presents the issues related to the use and functionality of ballistic helmets. Detailed analyzes were related to the rating of the sustainability of fixing helmet harness system. In the article some methodology was also presented, which allows to assess the risk measurably, related to unhooking of the interior fittings of the helmet. The result of this analysis was the development of own procedures of the Laboratory of Metrology ITB „MORATEX”. These procedures were related to the determination of peel strength of the velcro fastening and also to the determination of adhesion of the glue side of velcro hook tape to the inner side of the shell of the helmet. The study has been carried out under the project „Integrated Individual Combat Systems TITANIUM”.
EN
Contribution of the protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signalling pathways to the regulation of 11y3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (HSD11B2) gene expression was investigated in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Treatment of the cells with an adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, known to stimulate the PKA pathway, resulted in an increase in HSD11B2 mRNA content. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed attenuation of the effect of forskolin by phorbol ester, tetra- decanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA), an activator of the PKC pathway. It was also demon­strated that specific inhibitors significantly reduced the effect of activators of the two pathways. Stimulation of the PKA pathway did not affect, whereas stimulation of the PKC pathway significantly reduced MCF-7 cell proliferation in a time-dependent manner. A cell growth inhibitor, dexamethasone, at high concentrations, caused a 40% de­crease in proliferation of MCF-7 cells and this effect was abolished under conditions of increased HSD11B2 expression. It was concluded that in MCF-7 cells, stimulation of the PKA signal transduction pathway results in the induction of HSD11B2 expression and that this effect is markedly reduced by activation of the PKC pathway. Activation of the PKC pathway also resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation, while activation of the PKA pathway abolished the antiproliferative effect of dexamethasone. These effects might be due to oxidation of dexamethasone by the PKA-inducible HSD11B2.
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