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All that was previously known about the painter Giovanni Vanetti (b. 1621 Arogno) was that in the first half of the 1650s he worked for Ottavio Piccolomini (1599–1656) in the chateau in Náchod and subsequently decorated the monastery church of the Cistercians in Neuzelle in Lower Lusatia with his paintings. Essentially, he was an unknown painter with a modest talent from whom, it was assumed, Fabián Václav Harovník (1635–1683) probably learnt the techniques of wall painting. This paper presents new findings about the origin of Giovanni Vanetti, who came from Arogno in today’s Ticino, and about the paintings he is known to have created in Náchod, in Neuzelle and in Muskau near Cottbus. It is devoted to the stylistic starting points of Vanetti in the work of Piero Francesco Mazzucchelli, known as il Morazzone, (1573–1626) and other Lombardy and Ticino painters of the first half of the 17th century. The paper however focuses especially on the interpretation of Giovanni Vanetti in the context of the artistic migration of the masters from the Lombardy-Ticino lakes, in particular of the inhabitants of the parish of Arogno. Vanetti worked in Central Europe with his brother, the stucco-worker Giulio (1626–1688), and then especially the stucco-worker Giovanni Bartolomeo Cometta (c.1620–1687). The three contemporaries from Arogno moved around Bohemia and Central Europe generally close to other artists and artistic craftsmen from Arogno, often working on commissions from the architect Carlo Lurago (1615–1684), who came from the neighbouring parish of Pellio Superiore in the Val d’Intelvi. Last but not least, the article tries to interpret anew the situation in the field of painting in Bohemia in the 1650s and 1660s, and to offer an explanation of Vanetti’s relationship to the Bohemian painter Fabián Václav Harovník, his link to the group of Lurago colleagues, and the engagement of Harovník as a painter by leading aristocrats in Bohemia in their grandiose, newly-built residences.
O malíři Giovannim Vanettim (nar. 1621 Arogno) se dosud vědělo, že pracoval v první polovině padesátých let 17. století na zámku v Náchodě pro Ottavia Piccolominiho (1599–1656) a následně dekoroval svými malbami klášterní kostel cisterciáků v Neuzelle v Dolní Lužici. Šlo v podstatě o neznámého malíře skromného talentu, u něhož se podle předpokladu naučil Fabián Václav Harovník (1635–1683) technice nástěnné malby. Předkládaný článek přináší nová zjištění o původu Giovanniho Vanettiho, který pocházel z Arogna v dnešním Ticinu, o jeho známých realizacích v Náchodě, Neuzelle a v Muskau u Chotěbuze. Věnuje se Vanettiho stylovým východiskům v díle Piera Francesca Mazzucchelliho, zvaného il Morazzone, (1573–1626) a dalších lombardských a ticinských malířů první poloviny 17. století. Především se však článek soustředí na interpretaci Giovanniho Vanettiho v kontextu umělecké migrace mistrů od lombardsko-ticinských jezer, zejména obyvatel obce Arogno. Vanetti totiž působil ve střední Evropě společně se svým bratrem štukatérem Giuliem (1626–1688) a hlavně pak se štukatérem Giovannim Bartolomeem Comettou (asi 1620–1687). Všichni tři arognští vrstevníci se pohybovali v Čechách, a obecněji ve střední Evropě, v blízkosti dalších umělců a uměleckých řemeslníků z Arogna, kteří pracovali často napojeni na zakázky architekta Carla Luraga (1615–1684) z nedaleké obce Pellio Superiore z Val d’Intelvi. V neposlední řadě článek nově interpretuje situaci v oblasti malířství v Čechách v padesátých a šedesátých letech 17. století a nabídzí vysvětlení Vanettiho vztahu k českému malíři Fabiánu Václavu Harovníkovi, jeho zapojení do skupiny Luragových spolupracovníků a angažování Harovníka jako malíře předními šlechtici v Čechách ve velkolepých a nově budovaných rezidencích.
This study addresses a previously unexamined aspect of post-White Mountain exile: the way the image of those who had left the Bohemian lands gradually changed in their original social environment. The author carries out an analytical probe into the particular social environment of the Royal Town of Slaný, from which one of the largest waves of refugees from the Kingdom of Bohemia left for Saxony in the 1620s. Drawing on provincial, municipal and church sources, he endeavours to show how the picture of the local exiles gradually changed from a thoroughly tolerant attitude to one of unequivocally negative rejection. Several factors lay behind this change. Heavy pressure from above, at provincial and patrimonial level, was put to bear on the Slaný burghers, spreading a negative image of the exiles. After 1635, in connection with the alliance concluded between the Emperor and the Saxon Elector, this pressure differentiated. From below, it first took the form of an attempt by individual townspeople to acquire – by circulating a negative image of the exiles – social and financial benefits in the newly forming post-White Mountain society. This shift was later supported by a wave of popular religiosity evoked by the events of the Thirty Years War, by generational change, and by a complete transformation of local denominational identification and collective identity. The author would like in his further work to compare this local probe into the urban environment with research into urban communities with a different social dynamic and geography, and later to undertake similar research in the context of the lower and upper nobility.
Content available remote Na cestě k obecným dějinám: Josef Polišenský (1915–2001)
The article remembers life and career of Josef Polišenský, a prominent representative of the post-war generation of Czechoslovak historians, of Marxist orientation, but at the same time of great openness towards methodological and thematic inspirations from the East as well as the West. Ever since his university studies (in the 1930s) he showed interest in the widest context of historical processes, together with linguistic capabilities. However, general history was marginalized in Czechoslovak academia, not only as an effect of the perceived “patriotic duty” of historians study the history of their nation, but also because of the lack of access to archival sources. This was true even before the year 1948; after that, the possibilities for research abroad constricted even further. The solution Polišenský suggested was to turn into domestic archival funds and search here for sources into the history of other lands and peoples. These sources were then also to be made accessible by scholars from other countries through editions and translations to help them explain the possible “blank spaces” in their national histories. These efforts, however, were halted by political pressures that finally forced Polišenský to leave the Department of General History. In 1967 he instigated the foundation of the interdisciplinary Center for Ibero-American studies within the frame of the Faculty of Arts of the Charles University, the first specialized Latin American studies department in Eastern Europe outside Moscow, and became its director. In this role, he continued pursuing further his idea of the study of general history, combining minacious case studies with broad overviews.
Content available remote Zahájení "české války" v kontextu vládního bankrotu roku 1615:
This study deals with the issue of the new tax law, which was adopted by the Bohemian Provincial Assembly in 1615. In the older literature, this is interpreted as a strategic mistake and weakness of the Bohemian estate opposition, which voluntarily gave in to the emperor’s request and approved the collection of high taxes to repay the monarch’s debts for 5 years (1616– 1620). Based on the preserved sources, the author arrives at a different interpretation and considers the decision of the Provincial Assembly a form of state bankruptcy, which devalued part of the credit assets of a wide range of the monarch’s creditors who did not have Bohemian citizenship. The Provincial Assembly, as the state body controlled by the estates, seized the monarch’s land and established its own central tax office, whose task was to collect current taxes and older arrears (since 1597) and subsequently to use this money independently of the monarch’s financial institutions in accordance with budget appropriation of taxes. As a result, the royal court was cut off from most revenues from Bohemian taxes, which until then formed a decisive part of the court’s income. The author considers these circumstances to be one of the main reasons that led the elected heir to the throne, Ferdinand of Styria, to begin a military campaign in Bohemia in the summer of 1618. His main goal was to control financial resources; the religious-political crisis and the defenestration of the Bohemian governors in May were a suitable pretext for this intervention aimed at the control of economic resources of the Czech Lands.
Modern political thinkers have ushered in the theoretical concepts of modern alliances and collective security/defense. Before these political theories were turned into modern organizations, many radical changes had to take place in how international relations were perceived in Europe and the world. These dynamic changes started at the end of the Thirty Years War, with the signing of the Westphalia treaties in 1648, and came to fruition with the forming of the League of Nations in 1920. This article explores this 272 year historical process including its impact on the population of the Baltic Sea countries.
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