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PL
W ostatnich latach wzrost wykorzystania energii ze źródeł odnawialnych stał się integralnym elementem zrównoważonego rozwoju wielu państw Europy i świata. Wykorzystanie biomasy wiąże się z wytworzeniem energii tanim kosztem oraz obniżeniem ujemnego wpływu na środowisko, wynikającym z małej emisji zanieczyszczeń. Ponadto ditlenek węgla, pochodzący z biomasy, nie zwiększa efektu cieplarnianego. Surowa biomasa charakteryzuje się małą wartością opałową w porównaniu z innymi paliwami, dlatego przed spaleniem należy ją poddać suszeniu i peletyzacji. Stosując metody symulacji komputerowej porównano proces suszenia biomasy gorącym powietrzem i parą przegrzaną w instalacji o wydajności 5 t/h wilgotnej biomasy. Wykazano ekonomiczność suszenia parą przegrzaną i jej przydatność w instalacjach do produkcji brykietowanych (peletyzowanych) biopaliw stałych.
EN
Computer simulations were carried out to compare a hotair rotary drier with a superheated-steam drier in drying 5 m.t./h (wet basis) of 12×4×1-mm pine chips (15°C) from 60% to 8% moisture content with steam superheated at 170°C. Up to 80% of the heat delivered can be recovered.
PL
Na sektor biopaliw w Polsce w znacznym stopniu oddziałuje otoczenie prawne, polityczne, ekologiczne i międzynarodowe. Rozwój sektora uzależniony jest przede wszystkim od sytuacji polityczno-prawnej i świadomości ekologicznej. Artykuł analizuje wybrane składniki makrootoczenia i ich znaczenia dla rozwoju sektora biopaliw w Polsce.
EN
Biofuel sector in Poland is to a large extent affected by legal, political, ecological and international environment. Sector development depends first of all on political and legal situation and environmental consciousness. The paper analyses selected macro-environment elements and their importance for the development of biofuel sector in Poland.
EN
The paper presents the results of experimental tests of a FIAT MultiJet 1.3 SDE 90 PS engine equipped with a common rail system, running at full load operation at rotational speeds of n = 1000 rpm, 1750 rpm, 2000 rpm, 2500 rpm, 3000 rpm, 3500 rpm, 4000 rpm and 4200 rpm, carried out on a dynamometer stand. During the tests, the engine was supplied with diesel oil and rape oil fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in the following proportions: B20 (80% diesel oil and 20% FAME), B40 (60% diesel oil and 40% FAME), B60 (40% diesel oil and 60% FAME) and B80 (20% diesel oil and 80% FAME). This paper presents an assessment of the effect of the additions of rape oil fatty acid methyl esters to diesel oil on the unit fuel consumption and the emission of the following harmful exhaust gas components: nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, particulates and carbon dioxide. The fuel consumption was measured using a AVL 730 Dynamic Fuel Consumption fuel dosimeter. The measurements of the concentrations of the above-mentioned harmful exhaust gas components were performed using a MEXA-1600 DEGR analyser manufactured by Horiba, while particulate emissions were measured with a MEXA-1230PM analyser manufactured by Horiba.
EN
In this paper the problem is discussed of supplying high power diesel engines with biofuels in the aspect of consequences which occurr during their operation. Attention was paid to advantages and difficulties associated with application of biofuels to self-ignition engines. A relevant research problem was characterized and research targets were proposed to make it possible to most favourably shape energy merits of the engines. Special attention was given to wear process of such engines and their failures resulting from application of biofuels. The following problems were also considered: calcium carbonate sedimentation, closing graphite platelets in structure of cylider bearing surface and surface defects of piston rings made of aluminium bronze. It was demonstrated that to assess operation of the engines is possible under the assumption that in a valuating approach their operation can be compared to a physical quantity represented numerically and measured with the use of the joule*sec unit. Conclusions resulting from the domestic and foreign investigations on power and reliability of such engines were also presented.
EN
Bioethanol is an oxygen compound added to gasoline. Research into the possibility of applying it to diesel oil are conducted. It is assumed that such fuel could help reduce the emission of gaseous and particulate matter in comparison with conventional fuels. This paper presents the results of the authors’ chassis dynamometer test for biofuel containing 15% bioethanol. Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (THC), and particulate matters (PM) were related to diesel oil emissions.
EN
Crude vegetable oil may be used to drive self-ignition engines adjusted to this fuel. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of selected properties of cold-pressed crude vegetable oils used as biofuels. Physico-chemical properties of rapeseed oil (RO), sunflower oil (SO) and corn oil (CO) were compared. Density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, cold filter plugging point, calorific value, content of water, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in oil were determined. Kinematic viscosity curves of crude oils at temperatures from 5°C to 50°C were defined. The kinematic viscosity was the lowest for corn oil and the highest for sunflower oil.
8
Content available New Ecofuel For Diesel Engines
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EN
The World is strongly dependent on crude oil for its transport needs. In order to diminish this dependence, we need to introduce clean, CO2-efficient, secure and affordable transportation fuels. The current production of liquid biofuels in the EU25 is less than 1% of the market. Recent assessments have concluded that the 2010 tar-gets, 18 Mtoe used in the transport sector, are unlikely to be achieved. There can be three basic possibilities of accomplishing this target: i) the use of alcohols (first of all ethanol) and their mixing with petrol; ii) the use of fatty acids esters (methyl or ethyl) of vegetable oils and their mixing with diesel fuel, iii) the use of synthetic hydrocarbons of the synthetic gas coming from biomass resources and eventually their mixing with other “clas-sical” hydrocarbons. This paper presents a new way of utilizing alcohols as fuels for a diesel engine. It is proposed to use heavy alcohols as a mix with vegetable oils and conventional diesel fuel. It is presented another way to use alcohols. Namely the use of heavy alcohols as a solvent for vegetable oil (called the biomix or BM) and after the obtain-ment of the density which would be similar to diesel fuel, mixing the biomix with diesel fuel to obtain biomixdie-sel (BMD). This solution will be shown for example with butanol as heavy alcohol, rape oil as vegetable oil and conventional diesel fuel. The investigations are carried out with a simple diesel engine on the engine test bed. Main parameters of engine (power output, torque, specific fuel consumption) and the main exhaust gas compo-nents (in this case CO, NOx, PM) were investigated. There were better results achieved than one expected. Con-trary to existing experiences, the maximum of power output and the torque of engine is higher in the whole range of the rotatory speed of the engine crankshaft when the engine biomixdiesel (BMD) is reinforced. The addition of the biomix component to fuel influences the specific fuel consumption. Generally with the larger part of the bio-mix component the specific fuel consumption grows. Because the power of engine also grows up one should expect that in exploitation the specific fuel consumption should not increase. It is very important that this fuel could be used to reinforce old, existing now and the future diesel engines. It’s worth paying attention that the presented solution in which a virgin vegetable oil (contrary to today’s situation in which as a fuel ingredient we have only fatty esters) is an ingredient for fuel. The production of butanol is known (from biomass and in other way with electrolysis of ethanol). The possi-bility to get butanol from ethanol gives a very good perspective for the use of ethanol from today’s overproduction and moreover without the essential change of infrastructure. All this leads to the conclusion that fulfilling the expected requirements of European Union regarding the biofuels is fully possible.The introduction of new fuel needs carrying out of a lot of complicated investigations, but chosen direction may be interesting.
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EN
The increased consumption of fossil fuels and energy result directly from the economic development of countries around the world. The economic development also affects the price of fuels, the cost of energy production and, above all, the progressing degradation of the natural environment. Therefore, increasing emphasis is placed on the possibility of efficient generation of heat and electricity from alternative fuels. Biofuels are obtained from the biomass subjected to the biochemical or thermochemical processes. They may be in solid, liquid or gaseous form. They are a very good alternative, enabling to become independent of the fossil energy sources such as coal, oil or gas. The locally produced biofuels can be a cheap energy carrier and also contribute to the climate protection. The main purpose of this article was to present the general characteristics of liquid biofuels. The methods and processes of their production as well as the possibilities of using them in the heating processes are discussed. The preliminary results of comparison of energy values for bioethanol from different distillation stages on laboratory scale were also presented. On the basis of literature review and own research results it can be noticed that the liquid biofuels are an interesting alternative to the conventional fuels.
10
Content available remote An evaluation of models for biodiesel injection sprays
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EN
There is a tendency to use biodiesel (methyl ester of rapeseed oil in particular), rapeseed oil and their blends with diesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. The mathematical modelling of the fuel spray is a wide-spread approach lo facilitate the problem solving in this area. The paper studies three types of the models, namely Sazhin's model, Reitz's wave breakup model, and Lishevsky's model. For the models, the relationship between respective model parameters has been defined and the parameter's values have been calculated using experimental data. Given the values, some main spray characteristics have been computed. Based on the characteristics' values, an evaluation of the models has been performed and the following conclusions have been made: (1) the models discussed do not enable to compute all characteristics needed all together; (2) some models do not indicate the increase of the spray penetration for rapeseed oil and biodiesel in comparison with diesel; (3) in case of biodiesel, it seems promising to develop a hybrid model based on the wave breakup model and using empirical formulae of Lishevsky's model. For rapeseed oil, the possibility to employ the models discussed should be studied further and will probably require more experimental data.
PL
Badaniom poddano świeżą biomasę wybranych gatunków wieloletnich roślin energetycznych w dwóch terminach jej pozyskania. Analizowano gatunki dające biomasę w postaci drewna: wierzba energetyczna odmiany Sprint i Wodtur (pędy jednoroczne) i róża wielokwiatowa; gatunki dające biomasę półzdrewniałą: ślazowiec pensylwański, topinambur, rożnik przerośnięty, rdest sachaliński, rdest japoński; oraz gatunki dające biomasę słomiastą: miskant chiński, miskant olbrzymi, miskant cukrowy, spartina preriowa. Zbiór roślin przeprowadzano w listopadzie 2005 roku oraz marcu 2006 roku W pozyskanej biomasie oznaczono wilgotność, zawartość popiołu; ciepło spalania; wartość opałową i skład elementarny (węgiel, wodór, siarkę).
EN
Investigated was fresh biomass obtained in two crop terms from selected spe- cies of energetic perennials. Analysed were species giving biomass in form of wood: common ozier (Salix viminalis) - sub-species Sprint and Wodtur (annual sprouts) and rambler rose (Rosa multiflora); species giving semi-lignified biomass: rose mallow (Malvaceae), topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus), cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.), giant knotweed (Reynoutria sachalinensis) and Japanese knotweed (Reynoutria japonica) as well as species giving strawy biomass like three sub-species of miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis, Miscanthus giganteus, Miscanthus sacchariflorus) and prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata). The plants were harvested in November 2005 and March 2006. Humidity, ash contents, heat of combustion, calorific value and elementary chemical constitution (carbon, hydrogen, sulphur) were determined in the collected biomass.
EN
The focal point is to present the areas where the technology in buildings can be supported by proper motivation and take substantial advantage measurable in technical units. The need to understand the integration between ecology, society, economy and technology is crucial when global improvements are the targets. These targets should consider urban environments as natural human settlement, in the understanding that accepts human psychological needs for wide and deep education, acquiring highly professional satisfaction without resigning from family style of life and leisure as natural. It is necessary to accept human production also in its advanced levels as a natural human activity and to combine it with the other afore-mentioned components of integration. Attention has been directed to clean energy certification in newly constructed objects and refurbished buildings, formation of owner’s responsibility for the possessed goods and their best use in sustainable development. Particular attention has been drawn to the increasingly popular manner of using resources only if it is justified by proportionally very high advantages to the society. This has been presented with the examples of energy savings in low energy and passive buildings. Moreover, the examples show the ways of sustainable development which include the use of renewable energy, using coal only in collective industrial systems very restricted in terms of protection against pollution and uncontrolled use of energy, and similarly, of other conventional fuels, water and land.
EN
The paper provides the results of an integrated research of the energy, environmental performance and traction indicators and the characteristics of fuel feed and performance of A41, 2F511, VALMET 320 DMG and Audi 1Z highspeed, direct-injection diesel engines when converting their operation from mineral diesel D to the fatty acid esters (RRME and RRBE) and alcohol biodiesel mixtures. The researches are carried out in cooperation of the Lithuanian and Polish partners within the framework of joint scientific projects under EUREKA international scientific program „E!4018 CAMELINA-BIOFUEL”. In the light of the new EU initiatives („White Paper” 2011), 30% optimum part of RRME bio-component in the mixture with D (B30) is validated for practical use. The characteristics of fuel supply and heat generation in a diesel cylinder are under investigation; an explanation of a significant reduction in the harmful component emission (EG) and 2 to 4% increase in the fuel efficiency in case of use of B30 and B10 biodiesels is offered. The presence of the ethanol alcohol component 9E) in D-RME-E and RME-E biofuel mixtures resulted in reduction of CO and NOx emission by 10 to 12% and EG smokiness - by 20% per each 10% increase of E part. The indicated efficiency of performance was increased by 2-2.5%. The indicators of cyclic instability did not exceed the corresponding indicators in diesel operation on D. It is established that the motor properties of tested B30 and B50 biofuels based on butanol and rapeseed oil butyl ester RBE are similar to RME biodiesels and have important advantages over them: the complete solubility of alcohol component and the possibility of B30 (D-RBE) use at ambient temperature up to -30 centigrade. The motor characteristics of the second-generation biodiesels produced from the non-food raw material (Camelina Sativa oil methyl esters) are highly competitive with and even exceed by separate indicators the similar indicators of certified RME biodiesels. It is demonstrated that the conversion of diesels, including the automobile diesels with EGR electronic system, to operation on D-RRME (RME, CSME) biodiesels does not require the change of regulation characteristics of the fuel-feed system. The test of the oxidation stability of D-RME and D-CSME biodiesels performed under operating conditions on S. Lebedevas, G. Lebedeva, J. Žaglinskis VALMET 320 DMG marine diesel proved the stability of the motor, energy, and environmental performance indicators for 7-8 months' biodiesel storage without the addition of antioxidant and for 13-14 months' storage - with the addition of Ionol BS200 antioxidant.
15
Content available Alternative fuels for diesel engines
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EN
This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.
PL
Jubileuszowa edycja organizowanej przez Abrys konferencji „Paliwa z odpadów” odbędzie się w dniach 17-19 marca w Katowicach. Uczestnicy i prelegenci podejmą dyskusję nad jednym z największych problemów branży odpadowej, czyli frakcją paliw alternatywnych.
17
Content available The use of biofuel on the railway transport
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EN
The potential of biofuel application on rail transport for reducing the dependence on using the non-renewable diesel fuel and improving the environmental characteristics of the locomotive have been considered. The technique of comparative research concerning fuels on the rheostat and through operational tests has been offered. The methods of measuring harmful emissions with exhaust gases and the use of existing methods of controlling the fuel consumption have been developed. The conclusion about the prospects of using on diesel locomotives first the additives to the diesel fuel the biofuels of the first generation (biodiesel), and in future, the fuel of the second generation (synthetic biofuels) has been made.
EN
The aim of the study was to determine the environmental potential impact of the palm shell biofuel production process using life cycle assessment (LCA) through gate to gate approach. The environmental impact of each scenario was assessed using ISO 14040 (2006), which includes goal and scope definition, life cycle inventory (LCI), life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) and interpretation. The simapro v.9 software with ecoinvent 3.5 database was utilized to assess the environmental effect. The impact analysis method used is Impact 2002+. Functional units were used to show environmental references in damage assessment and characterization, such as energy use and global warming potential. The results show that the environmental impact evaluation obtained through LCA for the entire biofuel production process stated that the thermal cracking stage resulted in the highest global warming impact, compared to other processes, which was 118.374 kg CO2 eq. For the categories of human health, ecosystem quality, and climate change, each has a value of 0.0001 DALY; 15.708 PDF•m2•yr; and 335.233 kg CO2 eq where this value is the total damage assessment of the entire biofuel production process. From the results of the analysis by utilizing the networking graph on the simapro application, it can be seen that the environmental hotspot of the thermal cracking process of biofuel production is due to the use of electricity from the State Electricity Company (PLN) and the release of chemical substances from the process. To improve the environmental performance of biofuel production process, additional development steps are required to increase biofuel yield, purification efficiency of biofuel to obtain pure liquid fuel, and the use of renewable energy sources to generate electricity. Additionally, more particular data would be required for a more precise LCA study result.
EN
The article presents the laboratory tests results of the influence of the diesel oil content in a mixture with rapeseed oil on the operating parameters of a diesel engine with the CommonRail fuel supply system. Fuel mixtures with a rapeseed content of 0%, 50%, 70%, 100% were used. The article presents the results of tests carried out for various configurations of the object. The measurements included tests of exhaust gases: the content of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides as well as specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature. As a result of the research, it was noticed that the use of rapeseed oil causes a significant increase in fuel consumption and an increase in emissions. At a crankshaft speed of 2500 rpm and a torque generated by the engine crankshaft of 12 Nm, the specific fuel consumption for a 0% rapeseed content is 310 g/kWh. For the same engine operating conditions and the same rapeseed content of the fuel, the fuel consumption for 100% rapeseed content is 330 g/kWh. For the same engine operating parameters, analysis of the carbon dioxide content in the exhaust gas yields a value of 7.8x104 ppm for a rapeseed content of 0%. For the same engine operating conditions and for the oilseed rape content in the fuel is 100% 8.4x104 ppm. The mathematical models describing the effects of engine operating parameters and rapeseed oil content in the mixture on the observed values were created with the Scilab program. The degree of agreement of the determined mathematical models was checked by calculating the coefficient of determination (R2). The results are shown in 3D figures.
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