Merton’s concept of the ethos of science, which is one of the more significant contributions to the study of science, was long of only peripheral interest to the philosophy of science, or rather was completely ignored. But in recent decades there has been a noticeable revival of interest in Merton’s normative imperatives, partly in connection with the so-called social turn in the philosophy of science, i.e. turning attention to the social dimensions of science, and partly in connection with the formation of a special area in the ethics of science. The study is divided into three parts. The first part is devoted to a description of Merton’s model, while on the basis of the problems outlined in it he draws attention to four problem areas, the description and analysis of which can prepare a space for the “revitalization” of the ethos model. The second part addresses some of the arguments made by critics of the ethos model, polemicizing with and endeavoring to answer them. The third part, proceeding from the conclusions of the first two parts, tries to indicate the possibilities of using the ethos model for reflections about the issue of the place of values and norms in science, the problem of responsibility and the question of the autonomy of science.