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Limb graft thrombosis (LGT) is one of the most frequent severe complications after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of atherosclerosis in ileo-femoral segment on the incidence of LGT as well as to analyze the methods of treatment of LGT. Material and methods. The medical records of 564 consecutive patients operated endovascularly for abdominal aortic aneurysm by means of bifurcated stentgrafts in the Department of General, Vascular and Transplantat Surgery of Medical University of Warsaw were analyzed. The minimal observation time after surgery was one year. Patients with inflammatory, ruptured and falls aneurysms as well as those with the observation period below 12 months were excluded from the study. Patients were divided into two groups: test (B) and control (K) depending on the progression of atherosclerosis in the iliac arteries. Group B included 184 patients (13 women and 171 men), with advanced atherosclerotic lesions of ilio-femoral segment, corresponding to the A - C class in the TASC classification. The remaining 380 patients (25 women and 355 men) without significant blood flow disorders in the iliac arteries, constituted the group K. The computed tomography was done in all patients with acute limb ischemia. Results. During the observation time up to 114 month, the LGT occurred in 43 (7.6%) cases: [group B - 34/184 (18.5%), group K - 9/380 (2.4%)]. The treatment of LGT included an attempt of patency restoring of the prosthesis by means of thrombolysis or thrombectomy combined with stenting. In case of failure the cross-over femoro-femoral bypass was implanted. Thrombectomy was successful in 21 of 40 cases (52.5%), the local thrombolysis was done in 5 patients and it was successful in three cases and in the remaining two patients the thrombectomy was done. In 16 of 24 patients after patency restoring of the prosthesis the angioplastics and stenting was done. In 17 cases the femoro-femoral bypass was implanted. Conclusions. The atherosclerosis in ileo-femoral segment significantly increases the risk of LGT. An attempt of patency restoring (thrombectomia or thrombolysis) combined with stenting and cross-over femoro- femoral bypass implantation in case of failure seems to be the successful method of LGT treatment.
Acute ischemia of lower limbs due to thrombosis of large arteries is associated with high mortality and high rate of dangerous complications. Isolated intraarterial thrombolysis may improve prognosis of patients at high operative risk.The aim of the study was to assess early results of local thrombolytic therapy (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator r-tPA) of acute ischemia of lower limbs (duration of ischemia up to 15 days) in patients with poor general condition and with a history of vascular operations.Material and methods. Local intraarterial thrombolysis was performed in 35 patients who had developed acute ischemia of lower limbs due to thrombosis, in Chair and Clinic of General, Vascular and Transplantation Surgery, Warsaw Medical University in the period of time between 2003 and 2006. Twenty six of these patients previously underwent implantation of grafts made of artificial material. Signs and symptoms of ischemia persisted from several hours to 15 days. Nine patients were classified as ASA-IV, 26 patients as ASA-III on the risk scale.Thrombolytic therapy involved local infusion of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator r-tPA (Actylise) through a catheter inserted into the common femoral artery (contralateral to the ischemic limb). When thrombolysis was completed, heparin (given at a prophylactic dose) was started and continued until discharge.Results. Thrombolytic therapy resulted in vessel patency in 18 out of 35 treated patients (51%). Treatment effectiveness increased with shortening of duration of the limb ischemia. During thrombolytic therapy, one patient developed gastrointestinal bleeding that despite treatment resulted in death. In ten treated patients local bleeding from the puncture site was found, treated with compression in 9 patients while one patient required surgical intervention (evacuation of hematoma). Neither death nor limb amputation occurred during the hospitalization of 18 patients after the successful thrombolysis. Three patients required angioplasty due to vascular stenoses found in angiography as the cause of thrombosis. After unsuccessful thrombolysis, necrosis of peripheral parts of the limbs occurred and due to lack of possibility of further vascular reconstruction, amputation was required. Surgical restoration of vessel patency performed in the remaining 12 patients was successful in eight patients, while unsuccessful in the other 4 patients who also required limb amputation. Three deaths occurred in this group, caused by heart failure after the procedure of restoration of vessel patency.Conclusions. Our results indicate that local thrombolytic therapy can be effective in rescuing a limb at risk in patients with contraindications to surgical treatment.
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